UPDATE: 97 putative causes of obesity

September 1st, 2013 by MorganDowney Leave a reply »

UPDATE: 97 Putative Causes of Obesity

An earlier post I listed 82 putative causes of obesity. Now, the list has been updated. Two of the previous categories have been combined (chemical toxins and endocrine disruptors; global food system and international trade policies). 17 new putative causes have been added. As I mentioned in the earlier post, “The links will not take you to a definitive study but only to an example of the debate going on in that area. So, the questions are: 1. If a disease has 82 (now 99) possible causes, can anyone say we know what THE CAUSE is? 2. Can all these putative causes be correct? In other words, can a diverse collection of events trigger a perturbation in the system to cause obesity? Alternatively, since each putative cause has some individuals with exposure who do not develop obesity, is there some kind of “master switch” which has to be tripped to cause excess adipose tissue accumulation? 3. What possible prevention strategy could account for all these variables?

There was an interesting essay recently in Forbes critical of a study showing a co-relation of BPA and obesity. It’s worth reading.

Nikhil Dhurandhar commented to ABC News on whether obesity may be several diseases. The story referenced the large number of putative causes.

1. agricultural policies

2. air conditioning,

3. air pollution,

4. antibiotic usage at early age

5. arcea nut chewing,

NEW 6. artificial sweeteners,

NEW 7.  Asian tiger mosquitos,

8. assortative mating,

9. being a single mother,

10. birth by C-section,

11. built environment,

New 12. celebrity chefs,

13. chemical toxins, (endocrine disruptors)

14. child maltreatment,

NEW 15. compulsive buying,

16. competitive food sales in schools,

NEW 17. consuming skim milk in preschool children,

18. consumption of pastries and chocolate (in Burkina Faso),

19. decline in occupational physical activity,

20. delayed prenatal care,

21. delayed satiety,

22. depression

23. driving children to school

24. eating away from home

25. economic development (nutrition transition)

26.entering into a romantic relationship,

27. epigenetic factors,

NEW 28. eradication of Helicobacter pylori,

29. family conflict,

NEW 30. family divorce,

31. first-born in family

32. food addiction

33. food deserts

34. food insecurity,

35. food marketing to  children

36. food overproduction

37. friends

38. genetics,

39. gestational diabetes,

40. global food system,(international trade policies)

41. grilled foods

42. gut microbioata,

43. having children, for women,

44.  heavy alcohol consumption,

45.  home labor saving devices,

NEW 46. hormones (insulin,glucagon,ghrelin),

47. hunger-response to food cues,

48. high fructose corn syrup,

NEW 49. interpersonal violence,

50.  lack of family meals,

51. lack of nutritional education,

52. lack of self-control,

53. large portion sizes,

54. living in the suburbs,

55. living in crime-prone areas,

NEW 56. low educational levels for women,

57. low levels of physical activity,

NEW 58. low Vitamin D levels,

59.  low socioeconomic status,

60. market economy,

61. marrying in later life

62. maternal employment,

63. maternal obesity,

64. maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy,

65. maternal smoking,

66. meat consumption,

67. menopause,

68.  mental disabilities,

NEW 69. neuro-endocrine stress response,

70. no or short term breastfeeding,

71. non-parental childcare

NEW 72. outdoor advertising,

73. overeating,

74. participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamp Program)

NEW 75. perceived weight discrimination,

76. perception of neighborhood safety,

77. physical disabilities,

78. prenatal  maternal exposure to natural disasters,

79. poor emotional coping

80. sleep deficits,

81. skipping breakfast,

82. snacking,

83. smoking cessation,

NEW 84. spanking children,

85. stair design

86. stress

87.  sugar-sweetened beverages,

NEW 88. taste for fat

89.  trans fats,

90. transportation by car,

91. television set in bedrooms

92. television viewing,

93. thyroid dysfunction

94. vending machines,

95. virus

96. weight gain inducing drugs,

New 97. working long hours,