Posts Tagged ‘causes’

The Putative 82 Causes of Obesity

February 28th, 2013

I’ve been keeping track of the putative causes of obesity. I am now up to 82. I don’t allege they are all correct. But they do exist in the scientific or popular literature, usually both. The links will not take you to a definitive study but only to an example of the debate going on in that area. So, the questions are: 1. If a disease (condition) has 82 possible causes, can anyone say we know what THE CAUSE is? 2. Can all these putative causes be correct? In other words, can a diverse collection of events trigger a perturbation in the system to cause obesity? Alternatively, since each putative cause has some individuals with exposure who do not develop obesity, is there some kind of “master switch” which has to be tripped to cause excess adipose tissue accumulation? What possible prevention strategy could account for all these variables? Curious minds want to know.

1. agricultural policies

2. air conditioning,

3. air pollution,

4. antibiotic usage at early age

5. arcea nut chewing,

6. assortative mating,

7. being a single mother,

8. birth by C-section,

9. built environment,

10. chemical toxins,

11. child maltreatment,

12. competitive food sales in schools,

13. consumption of pastries and chocolate (in Burkina Faso),

14. decline in occupational physical activity,

15. delayed prenatal care,

16. delayed satiety,

17. depression

18. driving children to school

19. eating away from home

20. economic development

21. endocrine disruptors,

22. entering into a romantic relationship,

23. epigenetic factors,

24. family conflict,

25. first-born in family

26. food addiction

27. food deserts

28. food insecurity,

29. food marketing to  children

30. food overproduction

31. friends

32. genetics,

33. gestational diabetes,

34. global food system,

35. grilled foods

36. gut microbioata,

37. having children, for women,

38. heavy alcohol consumption,

39. home labor saving devices,

40. hunger-response to food cues,

41. international trade policies (globalization)

42. high fructose corn syrup,

43. lack of family meals,

44. lack of nutritional education,

45. lack of self-control,

46. large portion sizes,

47. living in the suburbs,

48. living in crime-prone areas,

49. low levels of physical activity,

50. low socioeconomic status,

51. market economy,

52. marrying in later life

53. maternal employment,

54. maternal obesity,

55. maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy,

56. maternal smoking,

57. meat consumption,

58. menopause,

59. mental disabilities,

60. no or short term breastfeeding,

61. non-parental childcare

62. overeating,

63. participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamp Program)

64. perception of neighborhood safety,

65. physical disabilities,

66. prenatal  maternal exposure to natural disasters,

67. poor emotional coping

68. sleep deficits,

69. skipping breakfast,

70. snacking,

71. smoking cessation,

72. stair design

73. stress

74. sugar-sweetened beverages,

75. trans fats,

76. transportation policies,

77. television set in bedrooms

78. television viewing,

79. thyroid dysfunction

80. vending machines,

81. virus

82. weight gain inducing drugs.

 

Evidence Grows for Virus causing obesity

October 8th, 2012

A meta-analysis may add some greater credibility to studies linking Adenovirus 36 infection with obesity. The meta-analysis by Yamada, Hara and Kadowaki at the University of Tokyo, Japan,  looked at 10 cross-sectional studies. The pooled analysis of 2,870 subjects showed a weighted man difference for BMI of Ad36 infection was of 3.19 compared to non-infection. The odds ratio for the increased risk of obesity with an Ad36 infection was a significant 1.9. However, there was no relationship between Ad36 and cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, suggesting that Ad36 infection may be more associated with subcutaneous weight fat than visceral fat. PubMed: Ad36 association with Obesity, Metabolic Markers A recent study from Sweden has found Ad36 infection associated with pediatric obesity, severe obesity in adult females and lower risk of high blood lipid levels in non-diabetic Swedish individuals. PubMed: Ad36 is associated with obesity in children and adults in Sweden.

 

Another cause?

August 22nd, 2012

Another putative cause of obesity was just published…the use of antibiotics in children. How many does that make? PubMed: Antibiotic use in children and obesity