Posts Tagged ‘diet’

Update: Weight Loss in Breast Cancer Outcomes

May 1st, 2012

In a new study just out, Imayama et al  examined the effects of diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 postmenopausal women. The women were randomized to 1 year of caloric restriction diet, aerobic exercise or combined diet and exercise. Women in the diet and diet + exercise group with a 5% or more weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers compared with controls. The diet only and diet plus exercise groups showed reductions. This is an important finding as inflammation has been hypothesized to be a mechanism for cancer in obese patients. Cancer Research : Effect of Caloric Restriction

Last year, the same research team found that a combined diet and exercise intervention had positive effects on health related quality of life (HRQOL) in overweigh/obese postmenopausal women. Weight loss predicted improvements in physical functioning, vitality and mental health. Improved HRQOL led to positive changes in depression, stress and social support. PubMed: Dietary weight loss and exercise effect on HRQOL

A study published last November showed that a high body mass index BMI) at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with higher mortality, as is weight gain at later times. A low-fat diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fiber seems to be weakly associated with a better prognosis. There was no evidence of any benefit from micronutrients, supplements or antioxidant foods. Alcohol consumption did not affect outcomes in breast cancer. PubMed: Effect of overweight on breast cancer prognosis

 

Diet Trumps Physical Activity for Glycemic Control

July 8th, 2011

A new study published in The Lancet shows little advantage of physical activity over diet for glycemic control in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics.  The study compared three groups: usual care, diet only and diet and physical activity. Both interventions did better than usual care but physical activity did not confer additional benefit. Diet or diet plus physical activity versus usual care in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the Early ACTID randomised controlled trial : The Lancet Other studies have shown more benefit from physical activity. Further, usual care involves dietary counseling and the intervention here involved more intensive dietary counseling. So this trial may actually attest to the importance of more intensive behavioral counseling. Diet and exercise for new-onset type 2 diabetes? : The Lancet

The Causes of Obesity: There’s more than you think

September 30th, 2010

September 30, 2010

Perhaps the greatest gap between science and policy-making is the understanding of the causes of obesity. For most of the public and policy-makers, it is beyond discussion that obesity is caused by poor diets and lack of physical activity. Scientists, on the other hand, know that, without diminishing the roles diet and exercise play, they are not the whole story.  Obesity is far more complex. This gap has significant implications. Billions of dollars have been spent on strategies which, to be kind, are simplistic. Not only is this wasteful, it distracts or delays our understanding and the development of more effective remedies. Probably no better description, in great detail, of the ‘putative’ causes of obesity is contained in this article by McAllister and a prestigious group of co-authors. Ten putative contributors to the obesity epidemic. [Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009] – PubMed result. Even if the article is a bit dense, it is worth it to make us all more humble in approaching this disease.

Maintenance and Effects of Weight Loss

September 27th, 2009

Commercial program shows impressive duration of weight loss Weight-loss maintenance 1, 2 and 5 years after suc…[Br J Nutr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Weight loss maintainers use several dietary strategies Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified food…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2009] – PubMed Result

Weight loss in obese diabetic and non-diabetic ind…[Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004] – PubMed Result

Overweight and obesity and weight change in middle…[J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005] – PubMed Result

Effect of weight loss on reducing lipids in obese women Reducing diet and/or exercise training decreases t…[J Am Coll Nutr. 2002] – PubMed Result

Effect of weight loss on reducing hypertension Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodiu…[Hypertension. 2000] – PubMed Result

Influences of weight loss on long-term diabetes ou…[Proc Nutr Soc. 2008] – PubMed Result

Losing weight improves quality of life even if weight is regained Health-related quality of life following a clinical weight loss intervention among overweight and obese adults: intervention and 24 month follow-up effects

Economic effect of weight loss treatments Systematic review of the long-term effects and eco…[Health Technol Assess. 2004] – PubMed Result

Downey Fact Sheet 4 – The Global Obesity Epidemic

September 27th, 2009

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Increasing rates of obesity are not unique to the United States. Rates of obesity are increasing around the globe.

By Julie Snider for the Downey Obesity Report

By Julie Snider for the Downey Obesity Report

The World Health Organization projects at, as of 2005, 1.6 billion adults were overweight and at least 400 million were obese. Approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and 700 million will be obese by 2015. WHO | Obesity and overweight

The Global Prevalence of Obesity is tracked by the International Obesity Task Force, a wealth of data is available at ..:: IOTF.ORG – International Obesity Taskforce ::..

The prevalence of obesity among children is increasing worldwide. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesi…[Int J Pediatr Obes. 2006] – PubMed Result

The increasing trends worldwide appear to affect the children from higher, not lower, socioeconomic status Obesity among pre-adolescent and adolescents of a …[Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004] – PubMed Result

Prevalence is also increasing in Europe The epidemic of obesity in children and adolescent…[Cent Eur J Public Health. 2006] – PubMed Result

In India, undernutrition and obesity are co-occuring. Patterns, distribution, and determinants of under-…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2006] – PubMed Result

The cause appears to reflect dramatic changes in diet in urban areas and in reductions in physical activity The nutrition transition and obesity in the develo…[J Nutr. 2001] – PubMed Result. Some of the effects may be due to changes in income levels. Rapid income growth adversely affects diet quality…[Soc Sci Med. 2004] – PubMed Result. See also, Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density an…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2004] – PubMed Result and The real contribution of added sugars and fats to …[Epidemiol Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

As one would expect, the worldwide incidence of diabetes is also increasing Global Prevalence of Diabetes — Diabetes Care