Posts Tagged ‘elderly’

Inflammation and Metabolic Health

November 28th, 2012

Anis Larbi, Iftikhar Alam and Tze Pin Ng have produced a truly provocative review article, Does Inflammation Determine Whether Obesity is Metabolically Healthy or Unhealthy? The Aging Perspective in Mediators of Inflammation. They start by addressing the fact that not all obesity is the same. Some adults with obesity can be metabolically healthy (MHO) while others are metabolically unhealthy (MUHO).  The difference is the presence or absence of impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypercuricemia and hypertension. They note that obesity has spread around the world even as the exact causes of the obesity ‘pandemic’ are still in doubt. Additionally, they view obesity as a form of chronic inflammation. The inflammatory response is due to a number of components, including cytokines and adipokines.

The authors posit that, theoretically, metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) humans “may represent distinct subtypes of obesity that were predetermined genetically to confer different metabolic and cardiovascular risks. Another theoretical possibility is that MHO and MUHO represent transitions phases from nonobesity in the development and natural history of obesity, with MHO individuals eventually turning into MUHO. It is tempting to think over the possibility of the other way round, that is, the possibility of converting MUHO into MHO. Whether MHO or MUHO is sustained or not for substantially a longer period may depend upon a number of factors, including the levels of cytokines and/or adipokines.” They call for studies to investigate of this transition from MHO to MUHO. “The answer to this question,” they note, “may have paramount clinical and public health implications. Once the temporal is established, the course of obesity can be stopped or delayed at some stage in its natural history before it becomes “metabolically unhealthy.”

They suggest that the elderly be the focus of such studies for a number of reasons, while noting that the BMI alone, as a sole indicator of obesity, is responsible for discrepant findings. (No argument here). They also point out that in one study, inflammation could be a key factor in causing obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is also associated with chronic subclinical inflammation.

 

Gallup: Obesity Increases In All Age Groups

October 24th, 2012

The Gallup survey has reported that obesity has increased in every age group in the United States from 2008 to 2012. The Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index tracts health indicators. This survey showed significant increases in obesity among the elderly. It points to a steady pattern of weight gain through adulthood with decreases only in the 70s. “Most Americans who are over the age of 35 are now significantly more likely to be obese than those who were that same age four years ago, “ according to the report. GallupPoll: Obesity Increases in Every Age Group

Just When We Thought We Were Making Progress

September 27th, 2009

July 30, 2009 :: By Morgan Downey

A couple of weeks ago the New Jersey Department of Health (so-called) decided to stop reimbursement of drugs for obesity and impotency from a program for the elderly designed to supplement the Medicare drug coverage program (Known as Medicare Part D, it excludes drugs for treating obesity.)

An article in NJ.com N.J. to cease coverage of impotency drugs for seniors enrolled in state prescription plan – NJ.com quotes the Department of Health spokesperson stating that “cosmetic drugs” that treat obesity, hair loss or minor skin conditions as well as vitamins and cold medicines will no longer be covered saving the cash-strapped state $3.3 million. Amazingly, the state AARP chair said it shouldn’t result in significant hardships for vulnerable adults. Doug Johnson said the state, “could have easily slashed vital health care programs and services that vulnerable adults depend on, but they did not.” (Some advocate for the elderly, eh?)

Weight loss in the elderly is important and achievable. The Diabetes Prevention Program found that older participants actually had greater weight loss and higher levels of physical activity than younger participants. The influence of age on the effects of lifestyle m…[J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006] – PubMed Result. It may be that younger older persons from 65 years of age to 74 years have reduced stress from their careers, children may be grown, and they may see friends and family struggling with health problems. These may all motivate them to improve their health and it clearly benefits the Medicare program if diabetes or cardiovascular diseases related to obesity can be postponed or avoided.

We thought the old canard that obesity is a trivial, cosmetic problem was put to rest years ago. Even as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention is conducting a three day conference on obesity and even as Congress and the Administration, employers and insurers are grappling with approaches to prevention and treatment of obesity, we see two leading health care institutions throwing up the ‘cosmetic’ view of obesity. This comes, of course, on the heels of the American Medical Association declaring that persons with morbid obesity who cannot work should not be eligible for disability payments. We might expect such attitudes from people or institutions who did not know better but these are respected health organizations who are taking us backward not forward. If supposedly science-based organizations dedicated to improving individual and public health take these attitudes how can we expect the public to take the obesity problem seriously?

Downey Fact Sheet 6 – Morbid Obesity

September 27th, 2009

pdficon_smallPrintable PDF

Fact Sheet Morbid Obesity

Over two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese; one-third are obese. But the obesity crisis in the United States is really the crisis of morbid obesity. It is this group – persons with morbid obesity – who have the most comorbid conditions, the highest health care costs and the greatest likelihood of death.

Morbid obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or more (roughly 100 pounds over ideal weight). (The Body Mass Index is a formula in which the weight in kilograms is divided by height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 to 39.9 is regarded as obese; 25-29.9 overweight and 20-24.9 normal weight; a BMI below 20 is considered unhealthy.) The number of Americans with morbid or severe obesity, defined as 100 pounds or more overweight or a BMI of 40, is growing twice as fast as the number of Americans who are overweight or obese.

The prevalence of Americans with a BMI over 50 has increased by 75 percent from 2000 to 2005. This statistic confirms that the heaviest BMI groups have been increasing at the fastest rates for 20 years. (Increases in morbid obesity in the USA: 2000-2005. [Public Health. 2007] – PubMed Result)

Archives

September 27th, 2009

APRIL 2009

April 24, 2009

After planting garden, Michelle Obama skips out to Five Guys for a burger.

First lady says she sneaks off to fun restaurants – washingtonpost.com

MARCH 2009

March 31, 2009

Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius lead off her testimony to the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee stating, “Yet, at the beginning of the 21st century, we face new and equally daunting challenges.

We face an obesity epidemic that threatens to make our children the first generation of Americanchildren to face life expectancies shorter than our own.”

March 30, 2009

Review of new drugs for obesity Obesity Drug by Arena Has an Effect, but a Limited One – NYTimes.com

March 27, 2009

New York Times reports on walking school buses in Italy fighting obesity and climate change

Students Give Up Wheels for Their Own Two Feet – NYTimes.com

March 18, 2009

Another study shows obesity increases risk of death

Obesity Takes Years Off Your Life – Forbes.com

March 13, 2009

Mississippi to cover state workers’ bariatric surgery

Surgery: Long-term care is more expensive | clarionledger.com | The Clarion-Ledger

March 9, 2009

Obama sets out Administration policy on use of science The White House – Press Office – Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies 3-9-09

March 6, 2009

Abdominal obesity adversely affects lung function Belly Fat Bad for Your Lungs?

March 6, 2009

New study finds dietician students prejudiced against persons with obesity Bias Against Obesity Is Found Among Future Dietitians – Forbes.com

March 1, 2009

Obesity increases worker’s comp. Obesity supersizing workers comp costs – Financial Week

March 1, 2009

South Carolina Senator criticized for trying to dump bicycle paths from stimulus bill. DC Bicycle Transportation Examiner: Sen. DeMint’s pro-obesity legislation was the real pork in the stimulus debate

FEBRUARY 2009

February 27, 2009

Obama budget to cut farm subsidies; improve child nutrition Obama wants to cut subsidies to farmers | DesMoinesRegister.com | The Des Moines Register

February 27, 2009

Drug maker buries data on diabetes drug causing weight gain AstraZeneca Documents Released in Seroquel Suit – NYTimes.com

February 20, 2009

North Carolina looks to penalize persons with obesity: Smoking, obesity may cost state employees | CharlotteObserver.com

February 19, 2009

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation announces national effort on childhood obesity Leading Research Funders Launch Collaborative To Accelerate Nation’s Progress in Reducing Childhood Obesity – RWJF

February 19, 2009

Clinton Foundation announces alliance on childhood obesity Alliance for a Healthier Generation Expands Efforts to Combat Childhood Obesity with Launch of Landmark Healthcare Initiative

February 18, 2009

Court of Appeals upholds NYC Calorie Disclosure Ordinance

http://www.citizen.org/documents/NYSRAOpinion.pdf

Court Upholds the City’s Rule Requiring Some Restaurants to Post Calorie Counts – NYTimes.com

CDC: Young Invincibles are obese CDC: ‘Young invincibles’ have significant health concerns – CNN.com

February 16, 2009:

Home recipes increase in calories: ‘Joy of Cooking’ or ‘Joy of Obesity’? – Los Angeles Times

February 12, 2009

CMS Issues decision on using bariatric surgery to treat Type 2 Diabetes; notes effectiveness of bariatric surgery in resolving Type 2 Diabetes. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

Obesity linked to Birth Defects

Obesity During Pregnancy Linked to Infant Birth Defects – NYTimes.com

JAMA paper on birth defect risks with mothers with obesity. JAMA — Maternal Overweight and Obesity and the Risk of Congenital Anomalies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, February 11, 2009, Stothard et al. 301 (6): 636

February 19, 2009

Fast food restaurants predict strokes

More Fast-Food Joints in Neighborhoods Mean More Strokes – US News and World Report

February 12, 2009

How evolution lead to modern obesity

AAAS: Modern obesity epidemic can be traced back two million years – Telegraph

NEJM — Expanding Coverage for Children — The Democrats’ Power and SCHIP Reauthorization

JANUARY 2009

January 24, 2009

Childhood obesity influenced by genetic variations

Science Centric | News | Childhood obesity risk increased by newly-discovered genetic mutations

January 21, 2009

Obesity imperils health care reform

FEATURE-U.S. obesity epidemic shows perils to health reform – Forbes.com

January 20, 2009

Employers try incentives for healthier workforce Firms offer bigger incentives for healthy living – USATODAY.com

January 13, 2009

NIH launches study of how genes and environment affect children’s development National Children’s Study Begins Recruiting Volunteers, January 13, 2009 News Release – National Institutes of Health (NIH)

January 9, 2009

Physical Activity May not be Key to Obesity After All

Physical Activity May Not Be Key To Obesity Epidemic

January 6, 2009

Obesity and Ovarian Cancer Linked

Obesity Linked To Elevated Risk Of Ovarian Cancer

DECEMBER 2008

December 22, 2008

A little overweight and inactive hurts too

Even a Little Overweight, Inactivity Hurts the Heart – washingtonpost.com

December 19, 2008

Limiting snacks in schools can increase fruit, veggie consumption

Limiting School Snacks Boosts Fruit, Veggie Consumption – US News and World Report

December 18, 2008

Childhood Obesity may affect thyroid

Childhood Obesity May Cause Thyroid Problems – washingtonpost.com

December 16, 2008

New York Debates Tax on Soft Drinks

A Tax on Many Soft Drinks Sets Off a Spirited Debate – NYTimes.com

December 12, 2008

Study looks at relationship between obesity, breast cancer and frequency of mammography

Daily Cancer News – CancerConsultants.com

December 3, 2008

Visceral obesity linked to depression in elderly

Depression Linked to Increase in Abdominal Fat – US News and World Report

Health Effects

September 26th, 2009

Obesity is now recognized as one of America’s most serious and growing epidemics. As expected, the prevalence of numerous, adverse health conditions flowing from obesity has also increased. For some of these conditions, obesity appears to be a strong causal factor, others are mentioned in the literature as associations or as causing additional complications: asthma, birth defects, certain cancers (such as breast, esophagus, gastric cardia, colorectal, endometrial, kidney, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and renal cell), chronic venous insufficiency, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, deep vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, erectile dysfunction, gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gout, fatty liver disease also called NASH, heat disorders, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, impaired respiratory function, infections following wounds, infertility, kidney disease, low back pain, macular degeneration, metabolic syndrome, migraine, gynecological complications, osteoarthritis, pancreatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome, pseudotumor cerebri or benign intracranial hypertension, psoriasis, sleep apnea, stroke and urinary stress incontinence and urinary tract infections. Obesity is often accompanied by psychosocial problems and outright stigmatization and discrimination. Low self-esteem and disability are obesity’s handmaidens.

The health effects of morbid obesity may be understated. A recent study found that employees with morbid obesity have a significantly higher prevalence of more than 100 diseases and conditions compared with other employees, and that those who had bariatric surgery had reduced the prevalence of one quarter of them. According to the lead author, “Morbid obesity appears to be a common link between a wide variety of conditions. This study suggests employers who implement effective prevention and treatment strategies for morbid obesity itself could have a major impact on the overall health of their employees.” New Study Shows Morbidly Obese Workforce Has Higher Prevalence of 100+ Diseases and Conditions

The following are numerous health effects associated with obesity. This is not intended as an exhaustive listing of conditions. Some may be inadvertently omitted. In some cases, the relationship between obesity and the condition are well established. Conditions also vary in how powerful a factor obesity might be. Type 2 diabetes, dislipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, breathlessness, the obesity hypoventilation syndrome, indiopathic intercranial hypertension and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis have the strongest association with obesity. The effect of obesity on health outcomes. [Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Several conditions are in very early stages of research and the connection with obesity may be disproved. Some of the associations with obesity or overweight are quite strong, less so in others. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity…[BMC Public Health. 2009] – PubMed Result The links are principally to peer-reviewed, published articles. Where possible, the first link is to a newspaper or magazine article on the subject. The articles are not meant to be comprehensive on the topic but merely to enable the reader who is interested in getting started. Where possible, the links are to review articles which summarize the available studies. Governmental statements are included where available as well as professional consensus statements or treatment guidelines. Whenever available, the links go to free, full-text articles. Otherwise, they are merely the most recent articles concerning the presence or absence of a link between obesity and the named condition. MD

Acute Pancreatitis

Diagnosis and treatment Acute Pancreatitis: Pancreatitis: Merck Manual Home Edition

Acute pancreatitis: a literature review. [Med Sci Monit. 2009] – PubMed Result

Allergic Diseases

Possible link between allergies and childhood obesity Possible Link Between Childhood Obesity And Allergies

Obesity and allergic diseases. [Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2008] – PubMed Result

Alzheimer’s Disease

Relationship of Alzheimer’s disease and obesity Obesity Today, Alzheimer’s Disease Tomorrow?

Adiposity, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s diseas…[J Alzheimers Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

Adiposity and Alzheimer’s disease. [Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007] – PubMed Result

The epidemiology of adiposity and dementia. [Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007] – PubMed Result

Body mass index in midlife and risk of Alzheimer d…[Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007] – PubMed Result

Central obesity and increased risk of dementia mor…[Neurology. 2008] – PubMed Result

Asthma

Understanding the asthma-obesity connection Wider Waist Boosts Asthma Risk – US News and World Report

Researchers have been trying for years to sort out the relationship between asthma and obesity. Some have found no relationship Does higher body mass index contribute to worse as…[J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009] – PubMed Result while others have.

Fitness and body weight in asthma Fitness, daily activity and body composition in ch…[Allergy. 2009] – PubMed Result

Asthma and obesity in 4-5 year olds Association between asthma symptoms and obesity in…[J Asthma. 2009] – PubMed Result

Asthma, the metabolic syndrome and obesity Asthma-like symptoms are increased in the metaboli…[J Asthma. 2009] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity, and incident asthma: a meta-a…[Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007] – PubMed Result

A meta-analysis of the effect of high weight on as…[Arch Dis Child. 2006] – PubMed Result

Obesity and the lung: 1. Epidemiology. [Thorax. 2008] – PubMed Result

On-line self tests for children and adults Nationwide Asthma Screening Program — Self Tests – ACAAI

Atrial Fibrillation

AHRQ: Management of new atrial fibrillation New Report Available on Management of New Onset Atrial Fibrillation

Meta-analysis shows increasing BMI increases AF risk Atrial fibrillation and obesity–results of a meta…[Am Heart J. 2008] – PubMed Result

Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation. [Swiss Med Wkly. 2009] – PubMed Result

Obesity and the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillat…[JAMA. 2004] – PubMed Result

Risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in relation …[Arch Intern Med. 2006] – PubMed Result

Effect of coffee and obesity on AF Effect of coffee consumption, lifestyle and acute …[J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity associated with increased left atrial size Body mass index is an independent determinant of l…[Heart Lung Circ. 2008] – PubMed Result

Tests for Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosis – Mayo Clinic

Attention Deficit Disorder-Hyperactivity

What is the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity? International Journal of Obesity – Abstract of article: Overweight//obesity and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder tendency among adolescents in China

Association Between Adult Attention Deficit/Hypera…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

ADHD associated with long term weight loss Treatment of refractory obesity in severely obese …[Int J Obes (Lond). 2009] – PubMed Result

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) an…[Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disord…[Eat Behav. 2008] – PubMed Result

Barrett’s Esophagus

Exploring the association between elevated body ma…[Ann Thorac Surg. 2009] – PubMed Result

Birth Defects

Overview: http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSTRE51979K20090210

See: JAMA — Maternal Overweight and Obesity and the Risk of Congenital Anomalies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, February 11, 2009, Stothard et al. 301 (6): 636

USPSTS Recommendations on Folic Acid Consumption

Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

Blood Pressure, Hypertension

How Do I Know If I Have High Blood Pressure?

Visceral obesity associated with lack of success in hypertension treatment Blood pressure control and components of the metab…[Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009] – PubMed Result

High blood pressure (HBP), blood pressure readings

Questions on long term improvements in blood pressure with weight loss. Long-term weight loss from lifestyle intervention …[Hypertension. 2009] – PubMed Result

Blount Disease

Association with obesity Blount disease. [J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009] – PubMed Result

Body mass index as a prognostic factor in developm…[J Pediatr Orthop. 2007] – PubMed Result

Relationship to Childhood Obesity Blount disease. [J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009] – PubMed Result

Breast Cancer

Combined effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes co…[Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk. [Chin Med J (Engl). 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and mammography: a systematic review and m…[J Gen Intern Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Cancer, General

See Breast Cancer, Endometrial, Esophageal, Ovarian, Pancreatic

Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systema…[Lancet. 2008] – PubMed Result

Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body…[BMJ. 2007] – PubMed Result

Cancer is a preventable disease that requires majo…[Pharm Res. 2008] – PubMed Result

Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions to Modify Physical Activity Behaviors in General Populations and Cancer Patients and Survivors: Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No 102

Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk. [Methods Mol Biol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Cardiovascular Disease, see also Heart Disease

Fitness and abdominal obesity are independently as…[J Intern Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Disease Risk Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiolog…[Circulation. 2006] – PubMed Result

Surgery: Is extreme obesity a risk factor for cardiac surge…[Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006] – PubMed Result

Effect of obesity on early morbidity and mortality…[Heart Lung Circ. 2007] – PubMed Result

Findings from Project HeartBeat! Their importance …[Am J Prev Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes have heart abnormalities Youth with obesity and obesity-related type 2 diab…[Circulation. 2009] – PubMed Result

Use of BMI or other indicators Waist-height ratio as a predictor of coronary hear…[Epidemiology. 2009] – PubMed Result

Cataracts

Central Obesity and the metabolic syndrome appear to raise the risks of cataracts Relation between cataract and metabolic syndrome a…[Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

Cholesterol, Hypercholesterolemia

NHLBI, High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

Increased body mass and depressive symptomatology …[Lipids Health Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

Chronic Diseases

Best Practices for reducing obesity and chronic disease

Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk …[Obes Rev. 2006] – PubMed Result

Colorectal Cancer

Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: a meta-a…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-anal…[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysi…[World J Gastroenterol. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-anal…[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Deep Vein Thrombosis

The Coalition to Prevent DVT has a risk assessment tool at Assess Your DVT Bloood Clot Risks

[Influence of body mass index and age on deep vein…[Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006] – PubMed Result

Cardiovascular evaluation and management of severe…[Circulation. 2009] – PubMed Result

Metabolic syndrome and risk of venous thromboembol…[J Thromb Haemost. 2009] – PubMed Result

Greater fish, fruit, and vegetable intakes are rel…[Circulation. 2007] – PubMed Result

Depression

The relationship between abdominal fat, obesity, a…[J Psychosom Res. 2009] – PubMed Result

Altered executive function in obesity. Exploration…[Appetite. 2009] – PubMed Result

A prospective study of the role of depression in t…[Pediatrics. 2002] – PubMed Result

Depression and body mass index, a u-shaped associa…[BMC Public Health. 2009] – PubMed Result

Psychosocial aspects of obesity. [Adv Psychosom Med. 2006] – PubMed Result

Diverticulitis

AHRQ: Research Activities, July 2009: Chronic Disease: Obesity boosts risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding

Research Activities, July 2009: Chronic Disease: Obesity boosts risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding

Obesity increases the risks of diverticulitis and …[Gastroenterology. 2009] – PubMed Result

Drug Induced Weight Gain

Epidemiology, implications and mechanisms underlyi…[J Psychiatr Res. 2003 May-Jun] – PubMed Result

[Psychotropic drugs induced weight gain: a review …[Encephale. 2005 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

Preventive treatment of migraine: effect on weight. [Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008] – PubMed Result

AHRQ Effective Health Care Program – Summary Guides

Weight issues for people with epilepsy–a review. [Epilepsia. 2007] – PubMed Result

Weight gain in the treatment of mood disorders. [J Clin Psychiatry. 2003] – PubMed Result

Weight gain in bipolar disorder: pharmacological t…[Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008] – PubMed Result

Bipolar disorder, obesity, and pharmacotherapy-ass…[J Clin Psychiatry. 2003] – PubMed Result

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial Cancer Risk Among Younger, Overweight …[Obstet Gynecol. 2009] – PubMed Result

New review on obesity and endometrial cancer Body size, adult BMI gain and endometrial cancer r…[Int J Cancer. 2009] – PubMed Result

Epilepsy

Obesity related to undiagnosed epilepsy in children Obesity is a common comorbidity for pediatric pati…[Neurology. 2009] – PubMed Result

Erectile Dysfunction

The triad of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and the metabolic syndrome

Beneficial impact of exercise and obesity interven…[J Sex Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Effect of lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunctio…[JAMA. 2004] – PubMed Result

Esophageal Cancer

Body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophag…[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006] – PubMed Result

Abdominal Obesity Abdominal obesity and the risk of esophageal and g…[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Fecal Incontinence

Fecal incontinence in obese women with urinary inc…[Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Gallstone Disease

[Gallbladder disease and obesity] [Gac Med Mex. 2004 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

Gallstone disease: Primary and secondary preventio…[Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006] – PubMed Result

GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)

Relationship of BMI to GERD in the US Body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux diseas…[Am J Gastroenterol. 2006] – PubMed Result

Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesop…[Ann Intern Med. 2005] – PubMed Result

AHRQ Effective Health Care Program – Summary Guides

New Guidelines American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gestational Diabetes

Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes, chi…[Am J Hypertens. 2009] – PubMed Result

Obese Mothers at risk for Gestational Diabetes. See: Maternal obesity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis — Chu et al., 10.2337/dc06-2559a — Diabetes Care

Maternal obesity and risk of gestational diabetes …[Diabetes Care. 2007] – PubMed Result

AHRQ Clinician’s Guide http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/repFiles/2009_0804GDM_Clinician_final.pdf

Gum Disease

Obesity is associated with gum disease with inflammation being a common possible method of action Obesity Boosts Gum Disease Risk – Forbes.com

Heart Disease

The obesity paradox: body mass index and outcomes …[Arch Intern Med. 2005] – PubMed Result

Optimal Body Weight for the Prevention of Coronary…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Childhood obesity, CVD risk Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2009] – PubMed Result

Different degrees of overweight: anthropometric in…[Acta Cardiol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Optimal Body Weight for the Prevention of Coronary…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease. [Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity and cardiovascular disease: risk factor, p…[J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009] – PubMed Result

The joint effects of physical activity and body ma…[Arch Intern Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Body mass index and vigorous physical activity and…[Circulation. 2009] – PubMed Result

Association of overweight with increased risk of c…[Arch Intern Med. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and disease management: effects of weight …[Obes Res. 2001] – PubMed Result

Inflammation

Small study: Anti-inflammatory treatments (aspirin, statins) may help with weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. The effect of anti-inflammatory (aspirin and/or st…[Diabet Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism — Greenberg and Obin 83 (2): 461S — American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Obesity, innate immunity and gut inflammation. [Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007] – PubMed Result

The evolving role of inflammation in obesity and t…[Curr Diab Rep. 2005] – PubMed Result

Epidemic inflammation: pondering obesity. [Mol Med. 2008 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

Relationship between inflammation, insulin resista…[Curr Diabetes Rev. 2006] – PubMed Result

Insulin Resistance

From chronic overnutrition to insulin resistance: …[Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

Permanent impairment of insulin resistance from pr…[Med Hypotheses. 2009] – PubMed Result

Kidney Disease

Should prevention of chronic kidney disease start …[Int Urol Nephrol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity and chronic kidney disease. [Nephron Clin Pract. 2009] – PubMed Result

Waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, and subsequen…[Am J Kidney Dis. 2008] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity, and the development of stage …[Am J Kidney Dis. 2008] – PubMed Result

Association between obesity and kidney disease: a …[Kidney Int. 2008] – PubMed Result

Lipids, Hyperlipidemia

Bridging science and health policy in cardiovascul…[Atheroscler Suppl. 2009] – PubMed Result

Genetic influence of lipids HDL subspecies in young adult twins: heritability …[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Macrosomia

The influence of obesity and diabetes on the preva…[Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004] – PubMed Result

Macular Degeneration

Changes in waist-hip and macular degeneration Changes in abdominal obesity and age-related macul…[Arch Ophthalmol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity and eye diseases. [Surv Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar-Apr] – PubMed Result

Melonoma Cancer

Cutaneous melanoma and obesity in the Agricultural…[Ann Epidemiol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Metabolic Syndrome

Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: cont…[Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008] – PubMed Result

The concept of cardiometabolic risk: Bridging the …[Ann Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Is visceral obesity the cause of the metabolic syn…[Ann Med. 2006] – PubMed Result

Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes and large for gestational age factors Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with …[Pediatrics. 2005] – PubMed Result

Lifestyle intervention in obese children with non-…[Arch Dis Child. 2009] – PubMed Result

Migraines

Obesity may raise migraine risk, U.S. study finds | Science & Health | Reuters

Obesity, migraine, and chronic migraine: possible …[Neurology. 2007] – PubMed Result

Body mass index and headaches: findings from a nat…[Cephalalgia. 2008] – PubMed Result

Migraines and the metabolic syndrome Migraine in metabolic syndrome. [Neurologist. 2009] – PubMed Result

Mobility Problems in the Elderly

Metabolic syndrome and physical decline in older p…[J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009] – PubMed Result

Lifestyle factors and incident mobility limitation…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007] – PubMed Result

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders associated with obesity:…[Obes Rev. 2006] – PubMed Result

Musculoskeletal effects of obesity. [Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009] – PubMed Result

Musculoskeletal findings in obese subjects before …[Int J Obes (Lond). 2007] – PubMed Result

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

NAFLD strongly affects Hispanic population through obesity and insulin resistance Correlates and heritability of nonalcoholic fatty …[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Metabolic liver disease of obesity and role of adi…[World J Gastroenterol. 2007] – PubMed Result

Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver d…[Ann Hepatol. 2009] – PubMed Result

NASH

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

Role of inflammation in nonalcoholic steatohepatit…[Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005] – PubMed Result

Obesity Genetic Syndromes

Genetic obesity syndromes. [Front Horm Res. 2008] – PubMed Result

Genetic and hereditary aspects of childhood obesit…[Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005] – PubMed Result

OB/GYN Issues; see also Birth Defects

Greater cesarean deliveries in overweight/obese women Maternal obesity and risk of cesarean delivery: a …[Obes Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Higher risk of stillbirths Maternal obesity and risk of stillbirth: a metaana…[Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007] – PubMed Result

The impact of maternal obesity on maternal and fet…[Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Higher risks of neural tube defects Maternal obesity and risk of neural tube defects: …[Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Greater maternal weight and the ongoing risk of ne…[Obstet Gynecol. 2005] – PubMed Result

Reproductive results after bariatric surgery Reproductive outcome after bariatric surgery: a cr…[Hum Reprod Update. 2009 Mar-Apr] – PubMed Result

Pregnancy and fertility following bariatric surger…[JAMA. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obstetric outcome following laparoscopic adjustabl…[Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007] – PubMed Result

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis of the knee and hip and activity: a…[Joint Bone Spine. 2006] – PubMed Result

Obesity and osteoarthritis in knee, hip and/or han…[BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity increases the likelihood of total joint re…[Int Orthop. 2007] – PubMed Result

The relationship between obesity and the age at wh…[J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008] – PubMed Result

Ovarian Cancer

Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a poo…[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Body mass index, height, and the risk of ovarian c…[Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002] – PubMed Result

Pain

Health-related quality of life in obese persons se…[J Fam Pract. 1996] – PubMed Result

Overview of the relationship between pain and obes…[J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007] – PubMed Result

low back pain and obesity – PubMed Results

Pancreatic Cancer

Body mass index and risk, age of onset, and surviv…[JAMA. 2009] – PubMed Result

Pelvic Floor Disorders

Obesity is associated with increased prevalence an…[Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity and pelvic floor disorders: a systematic r…[Obstet Gynecol. 2008] – PubMed Result

PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

Effect of body weight on PCOS Effect of body mass index on clinical manifestatio…[Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009] – PubMed Result

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a major unrecognized ca…[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Pregnancy Outcomes

Obesity as an independent risk factor for elective…[Obes Rev. 2009] – PubMed Result

Effect of Body Mass Index on pregnancy outcomes in…[BMC Public Health. 2007] – PubMed Result

Prostate Cancer

Obese men have larger tumors Obese men have higher-grade and larger tumors: an …[Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

Psoriasis

Psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome. [J Drugs Dermatol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Pseudo Tumor cerebri (idiopathic intercranial hypertension)

Profiles of obesity, weight gain, and quality of l…[Am J Ophthalmol. 2007] – PubMed Result

Gastric surgery for pseudotumor cerebri associated…[Ann Surg. 1999] – PubMed Result

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the associat…[BMC Ophthalmol. 2007] – PubMed Result

Renal Transplantation

Severe obesity affects success of renal transplantation Effect of degree of obesity on renal transplant ou…[Transplant Proc. 2008] – PubMed Result

Morbid Obesity not a contraindication to transplant Morbid obesity is not a contraindication to kidney…[Am J Surg. 2004] – PubMed Result

Severe Mental Illness

Obesity in patients with severe mental illness Overview of managing medical comorbidities in pati…[J Clin Psychiatry. 2009] – PubMed Result

Sexual Dysfunction

International Journal of Impotence Research – Abstract of article: Obesity and sexual dysfunction, male and female

Male obesity and alteration in sperm parameters. [Fertil Steril. 2008] – PubMed Result

Sleep Apnea

Is there a connection with obesity? Is there a clear link between overweight/obesity a…[Sleep Med Rev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Sleep Apnea Medicare announces new coverage MEDICARE ANNOUNCES FINAL COVERAGE POLICY FOR SLEEP TESTING FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

Stroke

Contribution of obesity and abdominal fat mass to …[Stroke. 2008] – PubMed Result

The Impact of Body Mass Index on Mortality After S…[Stroke. 2009] – PubMed Result

AHRQ Stroke Prevention Recommendations

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of stroke in women. [Arch Intern Med. 2006] – PubMed Result

Lifestyle and stroke risk: a review. [Curr Opin Neurol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Obesity: effects on cardiovascular disease and its…[J Am Board Fam Med. 2008 Nov-Dec] – PubMed Result

Swine Flu

Swine Flu may be especially virulent in persons with morbid obesity Intensive-care patients with severe novel influenz…[MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009] – PubMed Result

Type 1 Diabetes

Children with type 1 diabetes likely to be overweight Atlanta health, diet and fitness news | ajc.com

Childhood BMI, breastfeeding and risk of type 1 diabetes Childhood body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding and…[Diabet Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity and Type 2 diabetes: global phenomenon IDF Diabetes Atlas – Obesity and type 2 diabetes

CDC Data & Statistics | Feature: Diabetes is Common, Disabling, Deadly, and On the Rise

CDC’s Diabetes Program – Publications & Products – National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2005

Primer on Diabetes San Fernando Valley Sun – A Diabetes Primer

Prevalence of diabetes among children, adolescents Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with…[Pediatr Diabetes. 2009] – PubMed Result

AHRQ Effective Health Care Program – Summary Guides

Effect of weight loss on diabetes Influences of weight loss on long-term diabetes ou…[Proc Nutr Soc. 2008] – PubMed Result

Benefits of weight loss for type 2 diabetics Impact of a weight management program on health-re…[Arch Intern Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

No definitive studies of best dietary practices Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabet…[Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Not much evidence that physical activity and dietary interventions prevent type 2 diabetes Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type …[Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008] – PubMed Result

United Kingdom’s National Institute for Clinical Evidence (NICE) issues new guidelines for treating type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes – newer agents (partial update of CG66)

Studies confirm effectiveness of bariatric surgery in resolving diabetes Data confirm long-term effects of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes

UK Diabetes drug may also cause weight loss Diabetes Drug: New Treatment Helps Lower Blood Pressure And Weight Loss | Health | Sky News

FDA to review once a week diabetes drug US FDA To Review Once-A-Week Diabetes Drug Exenatide – WSJ.com

Stopping type 2 diabetes in children Experts: Most type 2 diabetes can be stopped in childhood – USATODAY.com

Urinary Incontinence

Weight loss helps women with urinary incontinence Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Women Reduces Urinary Incontinence, January 28, 2009 News Release – National Institutes of Health (NIH)

A systematic review of overweight and obesity as r…[Neurourol Urodyn. 2008] – PubMed Result

Weight loss to treat urinary incontinence in overw…[N Engl J Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Uterine Cancer

Obesity positively associated with uterine cancer The impact of BMI on subgroups of uterine cancer. [Br J Cancer. 2009] – PubMed Result

Obesity A-Z

September 26th, 2009

There are numerous issues involved in understanding, preventing and treating obesity. Specific diseases are treated in the Health Effects section. Below are a number of other issues. The citations are not meant to be exhaustive but merely to help the reader begin the search for various sources of information. MD

Adherence

Adherence can also be called willpower or compliance. It refers to individual behavior continuing a program of recommended advice, from following a diet to taking medications. Adherence or compliance is a major issue in health care.

http://obssr.od.nih.gov/pdf/Workshop_final_report.pdf

In spite of many efforts to improve Americans life style, the percentage of Americans following all five recommendations has dropped to an all time low – just 8% Adherence to healthy lifestyle habits in US adults…[Am J Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

For more information, see NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) – Adherence

Adiponectin

Higher adiponectin levels associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: a …[JAMA. 2009] – PubMed Result

Adipose Tissue

Obesity is about excess adipose tissue. However, adipose tissue is essential for survival and reproduction of the species. In excess amounts, it can, of course cause poor health and early mortality. Researchers have made great strides in understanding this tissue.

The perfect storm: obesity, adipocyte dysfunction,…[Clin Chem. 2008] – PubMed Result

Impact of increased adipose tissue mass on inflamm…[Curr Diab Rep. 2009] – PubMed Result

The role of adipose tissue dysfunction in the path…[Physiol Behav. 2008] – PubMed Result

Fat storage and the biology of energy expenditure. [Transl Res. 2009] – PubMed Result

Adiposity Rebound

Adiposity or fatness increases in the first of year of life and then decreases. About age 6, fatness increases again. This is called adiposity rebound and it is considered to be a critical time when the conditions for adult obesity can become established.

Early adiposity rebound: review of papers linking …[Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005] – PubMed Result

Adolescence

Food companies targeting adolescence in the digital age Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting…[J Adolesc Health. 2009] – PubMed Result

Maternal gestational weight gain and offspring wei…[Obstet Gynecol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Adolescent pregnancy and subsequent obesity in Afr…[J Adolesc Health. 1994] – PubMed Result

Changes in physiology with increasing fat mass. [Semin Pediatr Surg. 2009] – PubMed Result

Drugs shown to have efficacy, safety for adolescents Efficacy of weight loss drugs on obesity and cardi…[Obes Rev. 2009] – PubMed Result

No difference between obese and non-obese adolescent food consumption Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense foo…[Obes Res. 1999] – PubMed Result

Problem eating behaviors Problem eating behaviors related to social factors…[Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007] – PubMed Result

Changes in adolescent beverage consumption Five-year longitudinal and secular shifts in adole…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2009] – PubMed Result

And in physical activity Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activi…[Pediatrics. 2006] – PubMed Result

International Journal of Obesity – Clinical research in adolescents: challenges and opportunities using obesity as a model

Comorbidities of overweight/obesity experienced in…[Arch Dis Child. 2009] – PubMed Result

Longitudinal and secular trends in weight-related …[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of…[Pediatrics. 2005] – PubMed Result

Depression in adolescents A prospective study of the role of depression in t…[Pediatrics. 2002] – PubMed Result

Agricultural subsidies

No effect on obesity, from USDA http://www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/extension/update/articles/v11n2_1.pdf

EconPapers: Farm subsidies and obesity in the United States: National evidence and international comparisons

Are rising obesity rates linked to U.S. farm aid? | McClatchy

Farm Subsidies Over Time

ScienceDirect – Food Policy : Farm subsidies and obesity in the United States: National evidence and international comparisons

Alcohol Calorie Calculator

http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/CollegeStudents/calculator/alcoholcalc.aspx

Basal Metabolic Rate

The basal metabolic rate (closely related to the resting metabolic rate) is the amount of calories our bodies need to just maintain their normal functions, like metabolism, breathing, blood flow, etc. It is the baseline for determining one’s caloric input.

Basal Metabolism Rate Calculator (note: BMR calculators can have a high degree of variation : BMR Calculator

Breakfast

Is consumption of breakfast associated with body m…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2005] – PubMed Result

Breast-feeding

Mothers more likely to cease breastfeeding The association of maternal overweight and obesity…[J Pediatr. 2006] – PubMed Result

Overweight obese mothers less likely to breastfeed. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breast…[BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007] – PubMed Result

Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular …[Am J Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Australian study shows mothers with obesity more likely to cease breastfeeding Maternal obesity and initiation and duration of br…[Matern Child Nutr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and it…[BMC Pediatr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Calculators

Calories Burned UMMS: Calories Burned Calculator

Canada

See Canadian Obesity Network – Obesity Canada

Quality of life of patients with obesity The health status of obese individuals in Canada. [Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001] – PubMed Result

Prevalence of obesity in Canada. [Obes Rev. 2005] – PubMed Result

BMI and Mortality: Results From a National Longitu…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Child Abuse

Childhood maltreatment in extremely obese male and…[Obes Res. 2005] – PubMed Result

Relation of childhood sexual abuse and other forms…[Obes Surg. 2006] – PubMed Result

Childhood sexual abuse and obesity. [Obes Rev. 2004] – PubMed Result

Child abuse is associated with both obesity and depression in middle age women

Associations of child sexual and physical abuse wi…[Child Abuse Negl. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity risk for female victims of childhood sexua…[Pediatrics. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life:…[Pediatrics. 2008] – PubMed Result

Common Sense

‘Common sense’ when used to describe some obesity intervention usually is short for “there’s no data to support this.” Usually within 18 to 24 months there is study showing the ‘common sense’ recommendation didn’t work.

Cuba

Cuba presents an interesting case study. With the fall of the Soviet Union, Cuba, faced with reduction of subsidies from their former patron, went into an economic crisis, known as the “Special Period.” As a result, calories consumed per day dropped, physical activity increased and there was a modest 1.5 unit shift in BMI with reductions in obesity prevalence and increases in overweight and normal weight. Deaths attributed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke and all causes declined as well, suggesting population wide measures might reduce disease and increase mortality. Obesity reduction and its possible consequences: w…[CMAJ. 2008] – PubMed Result and Impact of energy intake, physical activity, and po…[Am J Epidemiol. 2007] – PubMed Result (While the Cuban experience is an extremely interesting situation, the question must be asked whether a democratic government not in extreme economic peril could impose such a draconian situation on its people. MD)

Disparities

While rates of obesity are increasing in all demographic categories, large difference between groups are very evident, leading researchers to ask why different groups in the same environment should have such divergent outcomes.

Obesity, Gynecological Factors, and Abnormal Mammo…[J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009] – PubMed Result

State of disparities in cardiovascular health in t…[Circulation. 2005] – PubMed Result

Disparities in preventive care by body mass index …[Women Health. 2008] – PubMed Result

The obesity epidemic in the United States–gender,…[Epidemiol Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Racial divergence in adiposity during adolescence:…[Pediatrics. 2001] – PubMed Result

Gender-ethnic disparity in BMI and waist circumfer…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Women Obesity in black women. [Epidemiol Rev. 1987] – PubMed Result

Eating Behavior

The psychology of food craving. [Proc Nutr Soc. 2007] – PubMed Result

RAND | RAND Health | Eating as an Automatic Behavior

Food cravings and energy regulation: the character…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2007] – PubMed Result

Eating Disorders

[Night eating syndrome and nocturnal eating–what …[Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Teasing history, onset of obesity, current eating …[Obes Res. 2000] – PubMed Result

Childhood psychological, physical, and sexual malt…[Obes Res. 2001] – PubMed Result

Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the sam…[Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009 Apr-Jun] – PubMed Result

http://www.womenshealth.gov/BodyImage/bodyworks/CompanionPiece.pdf

Does talking about weight lead to eating disorders? A Parent’s Innocent Word Can Trigger a Dangerous Eating Disorder – washingtonpost.com

Role of parents: Risk Factors for Full- and Partial-Syndrome Early …[J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009] – PubMed Result

Elderly

Obesity: What is an elderly population growing int…[Maturitas. 2009] – PubMed Result

Elderly risk for obese men Overweight and obesity and the burden of disease a…[Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004] – PubMed Result

Applicability of Federal Guidelines An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines…[Arch Intern Med. 2001] – PubMed Result

Fat or Fit Debate

Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness…[JAMA. 1999] – PubMed Result

Fitness and abdominal obesity are independently as…[J Intern Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Food

The obesity-by-choice debate. Effect of nutrient composition Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food avail…[Physiol Behav. 2007] – PubMed Result

Biology trumps knowledge in model of food choices Is Dietary Knowledge Enough? Hunger, Stress, and Other Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

USDA Food Plans: Cost of Food Cost of Food at Home

Eating and Health Module (ATUS)

Food and Beverage Marketing

See Institute of Medicine Report, Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth – Institute of Medicine

CDC Congressional Testimony CDC Washington Testimony September 23, 2008

Use of branded web sites Food and beverage brands that market to children a…[J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Sep-Oct] – PubMed Result

Use of cartoon and other characters Marketing foods to children and adolescents: licen…[Public Health Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

The ‘Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercia…[Public Health Nutr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Glycemic Index

Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets fo…[Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Hunger

Hunger as powerful, primordial emotion The role of primordial emotions in the evolutionar…[Conscious Cogn. 2009] – PubMed Result

Ireland

Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island…[BMC Public Health. 2007] – PubMed Result

Intensive Care

Effect of obesity on intensive care morbidity and …[Crit Care Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Menu Labeling

Menu Labeling in Food Chains http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf

Microorganisms

Fat Factors – New York Times

Obesity – Extending the Hygiene Hypothesis. [Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2009] – PubMed Result

Interplay between obesity and associated metabolic…[Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with …[Mayo Clin Proc. 2008] – PubMed Result

Military

Military family physician attitudes toward treatin…[Mil Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Attitudes and practices of military family physici…[Mil Med. 2001] – PubMed Result

Mortality

For many years, the issue of whether obesity causes an increase in premature deaths has been hotly debated. The public frequently receives conflicting information on the topic. Is it ok to be overweight? Are only persons with severe obesity at risk? In the final analysis, I think the American Heart Association’s Scientific Consensus gets it right…at some point (the curve of body weight) the heavier have higher rates of premature deaths. At what exact point on the BMI scale that takes place is open to discussion, but the curve always goes up. MD)

See Mortality, health outcomes, and body mass index in…[Circulation. 2009] – PubMed Result

An August 2009 study shows obesity is responsible for about 95 million Years-of-Life-Lost. White femals account for more than 2/3 of that amount. Without changes in the obesity prevalence, the life expectancy of US adults may decrease. Individual and Aggregate Years-of-life-lost Associ…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

New: Study estimates overweight/obesity and physical inactivity each responsible for 1 in 10 deaths in the US.The preventable causes of death in the United Stat…[PLoS Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Will the rise in obesity affect future mortality rates? Trends in Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes

The preventable causes of death in the United Stat…[PLoS Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Optimal Body Weight for the Prevention of Coronary…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Will the rise in obesity affect future mortality rates? Trends in Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes

Does intentional weight loss increase longevity? Long-term weight loss effects on all cause mortali…[Obes Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and Mortality after Stroke The Impact of Body Mass Index on Mortality After S…[Stroke. 2009] – PubMed Result

Preventable causes of death The preventable causes of death in the United Stat…[PLoS Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Effect of physical inactivity Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morb…[Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999] – PubMed Result

Obesity, Mortality and Nursing Home Residents Obesity and mortality in elderly nursing home resi…[J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005] – PubMed Result

Morbid obesity is an independent determinant of de…[Crit Care Med. 2006] – PubMed Result

The body mass index paradox and an obesity, inflam…[Semin Dial. 2004 May-Jun] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in …[N Engl J Med. 2003] – PubMed Result

Nursing Homes

Elderly in nursing homes Obesity in nursing homes: an escalating problem. [J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005] – PubMed Result

Oral Bacteria

Is obesity caused by an oral bacteria? Is obesity an oral bacterial disease? [J Dent Res. 2009] – PubMed Result

Pets

The young and old, rich and poor, black and white are becoming more obese. Is it any wonder that our pets would also see increases in their weight? As a matter of fact, veterinarians are very concerned about obesity in pets and have even formed a society to address the problem. See Pet Obesity Facts and Risks

Overweight in dogs, but not in cats, is related to…[Public Health Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

Portion Size/Control

The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the…[Am J Public Health. 2002] – PubMed Result

The influence of food portion size and energy dens…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2005] – PubMed Result

Energy density and portion size: their independent…[Physiol Behav. 2004] – PubMed Result

Public Health

Prevalence of selected risk behaviors and chronic …[MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008] – PubMed Result

Reimbursement

Should medicare reimburse providers for weight los…[Am Psychol. 2007] – PubMed Result

http://www.obesityaction.org/advocacytools/insurance/OAC%20Insurance%20Piece.pdf

Social Networks

In the past couple of years, researchers have been exploring new theories for the rapid spread of obesity. One of these areas is social networks of individuals, i.e. their close friends and relatives.

One of the earlier studies can be found here The spread of obesity in a large social network ov…[N Engl J Med. 2007] – PubMed Result but also see Adolescent obesity and social networks. [Prev Chronic Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

Weight loss may positively impact spouses Weight loss treatment influences untreated spouses…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2008] – PubMed Result

Stress

Shaping the stress response: interplay of palatabl…[Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication …[Brain Behav Immun. 2005] – PubMed Result

Role of stress and weight gain Stress and obesity: the role of the hypothalamic-p…[Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009] – PubMed Result

Sugar sweetened Beverages

Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and obesity: a systema…[Nutr Res Rev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Soft drinks and weight gain: how strong is the lin…[Medscape J Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gai…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2006] – PubMed Result

Soft drinks and weight gain: how strong is the lin…[Medscape J Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results f…[PLoS One. 2008] – PubMed Result

Soft drinks and ‘desire to drink’ in preschoolers. [Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008] – PubMed Result

Taxing Soft Drinkshttp://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddReportSoftDrinkTaxFeb2009.pdf

Taste

What is role of taste and obesity Taste and weight: is there a link? [Am J Clin Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

Technology

Smartphone apps for weight loss Smartphone Training Apps Help You Sweat the Details – NYTimes.com

Computerized BMI prompt increases counseling Effect of a computerized body mass index prompt on…[Fam Med. 2009 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

Television Viewing

According to this study, food advertising on TV is a major contributor to childhood obesity By how much would limiting TV food advertising red…[Eur J Public Health. 2009] – PubMed Result

http://www.nber.org/digest/aug06/aug06.pdf

Association between television viewing and poor di…[Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008] – PubMed Result

The association of television and video viewing wi…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006] – PubMed Result

Television viewing and television in bedroom assoc…[Pediatrics. 2002] – PubMed Result

Association of maternal obesity and depressive sym…[Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003] – PubMed Result

Time

USDA: Why working parents outsource children’s meals 2008 Farm Act Makes It Easier for Food Assistance Households To Save – Amber Waves March 2009

Eating and Health, USDA time use study data Eating and Health Module (ATUS) – ERS/USDA Data

Who has time to cook? Who Has Time To Cook? How Family Resources Influence Food Preparation

Americans of different weights spend same amount of time eating How Much Time Do Americans Spend Eating? – June 2008

United Kingdom

Tackling Obesities: Future Choices Project

Vending Machines

Vending machine offerings unhealthy The food and beverage vending environment in healt…[Pediatrics. 2009] – PubMed Result

Virus

Adenovirus Picture: adenovirus Ad-36 (implicated in obesity epidemic) by Russell Kightley MediaOb