Posts Tagged ‘overweight’

Only the Lonely

October 2nd, 2012

A study of 486,599 Swedish men over 40 years found that underweight, overweight and obese men were less likely to be married than their normal weight peers. Obese men had the lowest likelihood of being married. PubMed: Weight Status at age 18 influences marriage prospects

 

Obesity and Blood, Urothelial Cancers

May 17th, 2012

Last week I provided my prepared statement on the relationship on obesity and cancer. Now comes a study of blood cancers among 578,000 adults showing body mass index (BMI) was associated with blood cancer risk, lymphoid neoplasms and Hodgkin’s lymphoma in women, and  B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphatic leukemia in men. BMI was the most consistent risk factor compared to other metabolic factors, especially for women. PubMed: Metabolic factors and blood cancer

Another study, out of Israel, has found that overweight in adolescence is related to increased risk of future urothelial cancer. PubMed:Overweight in adolescence and Urothelial

 

Normal Weight Persons Heaviest Snackers; Weight loss Mainteners Best on Physical Activity

November 22nd, 2011

Contrary to the assumptions of many, the group that snacks most frequently is the normal weight, followed by weight-loss maintainers and then persons who were overweight. Weight-loss maintainers had the highest level of self-reported physical activity, followed by normal-weight individuals and then overweight participants. Eating Frequency Is Higher in Weight Loss Maintainers and Normal-Weight Individuals than in Overweight Individuals  Earlier research indicated that obese and overweight persons eat the same diet by macro-nutrients as normal weight persons.

40% of overweight/obese have functional impairment

October 2nd, 2010

 

New study in the September issue of Obesity shows relationship of obesity with functional disability. Heo and colleagues examined the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the relationship of obesity, functional impairment and the influence of comorbidities. 40% of overweight or obese respondents had a functional impairment. 62.8% of respondents were overweight or obese and  25.6% had functional impairment. They found functional impairments increase with increased obesity and that this relationship is mostly mediated by the presence of medical comorbid conditions, which also increase with higher levels of body weight. See, Heo, M, et al, Obesity and Functional Impairment: Influence of Comorbidity, Joint Pain, and Mental Health,  Obesity, 2010, 18, 2030-2038.

Downey Fact Sheet 2 – Quick Facts

September 27th, 2009
The Downey Obesity Report

The Downey Obesity Report

Printable PDF

ADULT OBESITY

The adult obesity rates have risen dramatically from 1960 to today; rates of overweight (BMI >30) have doubled, rates of obesity (BMI 30-39.9) have nearly tripled and rates of extreme or morbid obesity (BMI >40) have nearly increased seven fold.

ADULT (age 20-74) Prevalence 1

Overweight (BMI 25-30) Percentage

1960-1962 31.5%

2005-2006 33%

Obese (BMI>30)

1960-1962 13.4%

2005-2006 35.1%

Extreme or Morbid Obese( BMI>40)

1960-1962 0.9%

2005-2006 6.2%

The rates of obesity only tell half the story. During this period, the total US population has also increased. Therefore, the raw numbers of Americans affected have also increased. Looking at the numbers of people affected, the overweight population has doubled, the obese population has increased 5 fold and the population with extreme or morbid obesity as increased by a factor of nearly 12!

Number of Americans Overweight in 1960: 56.5 million

Number of Americans Overweight in 2006: 94.5 million

Number of Americans Obese in 1960: 24 million

Number of Americans Obese in 2006:
40 million

Number of American with extreme or morbid obesity in 1960:
1.6 million

Number of Americans with extreme or morbid obesity in 2006: 18.6 million

Since 1960-61 to 2006, the number of American adults who became obese or extremely obese*: 61.1 million

Average number per year: 1.3 million

Average number per month: 110,779

Average number per day: 3,693

Average number per hour: 153

Average increase per minute: 2.5

Since 1960-61 to 2006, the number of American adults who became  extremely obese*: 11 million

Average number per year: 240,217

Average number per month: 20,018

Average number per day: 667

Average number per hour: 27

Adolescents Obesity age 12-19 3

Percent overweight/obese 2005-2006 18%

Young adult Obesity
Ages 18-29

Percent obese 1971-1974 8%

Percent obese 2005 24%

Childhood 2

Ages 6-11 15%

Ages 2-5 11%

Year at which each group will reach 80% obesity 4

All 2072

Men 2077

Women
2058

African American Women 2035

African American Men 2079

Mexican American Women 2073

Mexican American Men 20 91

White Women 2082

White Men
2073

Adipose Tissue (Fat Cells) 5

Age at which typical body has acquired its full number of fat cells: 13

Number of fat cells in average American Adult: 23-65 billion

Number of fat cells in persons with morbid obesity: 37-237 billion

Number of fat cells lost in weight-loss efforts: 0

By Julie Snider for the Downey Obesity Report

By Julie Snider for the Downey Obesity Report

 

Daily Calories Needed and Available 6

Recommended calories per day by typical American adult:

Men 2,400 to 2,800

Women 2,000 to 2,200

Mean (meaning half were above and half below) adult daily calorie intake per day 7 :

Men

1971 2,450

2001-2004 2,593

Women

1971 1,542

2001-2004 1,886

Percent increase in food available for consumption per person from
1970 to 2003: 16%

Amount of food available for each person increase from
1.67 pounds in 1970 to 1.95 pounds in 2003

Daily caloric intake has grown by 523 calories from 1970 to 2003. Leading the way were fats, oils, grains, vegetables and sugars and sweeteners.

U.S. Government Biomedical Research 8

2008 Budget of National Institutes of Health $29.6 billion

NIH Spending 2008 on selected diseases:

Cancer
$5.6 billion

HIV/AIDS funding $2.9 billion

Cardiovascular Disease
$2.0 billion

Heart Disease $1.2 billion

Obesity
$664 million

U. S. Government Infrastructure on Combating Obesity

Name of coordinator of U.S. global anti-obesity efforts:

(Trick question: no such position exists)

Name of White House coordinator of federal anti-obesity efforts:

(Another trick question: no such position exists)

Name of coordinator of Department of Health and Human Services***anti-obesity efforts:

(No such position exists)

*Calculations were made by taking the CDC prevalence figures for 1960-1962 and 2005-2006and multiplying them against US census data for 1960 and census data for 2006,respectively. See Census Bureau Home Page

**Available in this context means the total US calories available for consumption, less spoilage and waste. See ERS/USDA Data – Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System)

*** Department of Health and Human Services includes the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, Office of the Surgeon General, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality among others.)

Notes

1. N C H S – Health E Stats – Prevalence of overweight, obesity and exreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-62 through 2005-2006

2. FASTSTATS – Overweight Prevalence

3. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus08.pdf

4. Studies of human adipose tissue. Adipose cell size…[J Clin Invest. 1973] – PubMed Result

5. Will all Americans become overweight or obese? est…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008] – PubMed Result. In this estimate, by 2030, 86.3% of adults will be overweight or obese and 51% obese; black women at a level of 96.9% will be the most effected, followed by Mexican-American men (91.1%). By 2048, all American adults would be overweight or obese but black women would reach that milestone by 2034. In children, the authors estimate, rates will nearly double by 2030.

6. http://www.usdaplate.com/

7. http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/November05/pdf/FindingsDHNovember2005.pdf

8. NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT) – Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC)

By Julie Snider for the Downey Obesity Report

By Julie Snider for the Downey Obesity Report

Downey Fact Sheet 5 – Measuring Obesity – The Body Mass Index

September 27th, 2009

pdficon_smallPrintable PDF

How do we know if one is overweight or obese?

There are several methods, but the one most frequently used by researchers and physicians is the Body Mass Index or BMI. The BMI is a mathematical formula involving dividing one’s weight (in kilograms) by one’s height in meters squared. The resulting number is one’s BMI. Thanks to the Internet, there are now a lot of calculators to do the math for us. This is just one of them. Calculate your BMI – Standard BMI Calculator . As you can see from the formula, the BMI is not adjusted for age, gender or other health status. It is meant to be a proxy for excess adipose tissue in the body. It does a pretty good job of that when studying a whole population or a subgroup. At the personal level, it may not be as good an indicator of excess adipose tissue. Waist circumference is sometimes used as an additional assessment of risk because it measures central adiposity, which is more likely to predict the risk for co-morbid conditions. (Generally, one BMI unit is equal to about 5 pounds.)

More sophisticated tools are sometimes used including hydrostatic weighing and DEXA which uses bioelectrical impedance to determine body composition.

The other problem with the BMI has to do with the cut-off points. In other words, what is the range for normal, overweight, obese and morbid obesity. Much research goes into evaluating what are the appropriate cutoffs. The studies are not always very clear…except for the fact that, at some point, increasing weight by any measurement means increased risk for comorbid conditions (See Health Effects) of mortality (See Obesity A to Z). A discussion of the needs for changes in BMI usage in the elderly is reported at An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines…[Arch Intern Med. 2001] – PubMed Result

BMI may tell us a lot about populations but you might be interested in how your weight compares with others your age, race or gender. See: Average height and weight charts, men and women .

For many years, Americans were familiar with the Metropolitan Life Insurance Weight tables Height & Weight Tables. These tables are often used with patients considering bariatric surgery. Many surgeons discuss weight loss not in terms of BMI units but in terms of Excess Weight or one’s current weight minus the Metropolitan Life ‘ideal weight.’ Excess Weight Loss or EWL, then, becomes the standard to look at weight loss following bariatric surgery.ASMBS – Rationale for Surgery

The search for an improved BMI continues but it is well validated and continues to be used worldwide.

Read more: Pathophysiology of obesity. [Proc Nutr Soc. 2000] – PubMed Result

BMI Calculator Go to Calculate your BMI – Standard BMI Calculator

Background on US BMI criteria: Criteria for definition of overweight in transition: background and recommendations for the United States — Kuczmarski and Flegal 72 (5): 1074 — American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass inde…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

How does your weight compare to others of same race, gender and age? See:Average height and weight charts, men and women

Obesity-Related Costs

September 27th, 2009

U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) papers on obesity

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Home

Workers’ Compensation

Obesity and workers’ compensation: results from th…[Arch Intern Med. 2007] – PubMed Result

Disability

See Rand Report: RAND Research Brief | Obesity and Disability: The Shape of Things to Come

Impact of obesity on disability in the United States: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/misc/disability2001-2005.pdf

The interaction of obesity and psychological distr…[Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Disability pension, employment and obesity status:…[Obes Rev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity status and sick leave: a systematic review. [Obes Rev. 2009] – PubMed Result

The relationship between overweight and obesity, a…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2009] – PubMed Result

Sick leave and disability pension before and after…[Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999] – PubMed Result

Occupation-specific absenteeism costs associated w…[J Occup Environ Med. 2007] – PubMed Result

Economic effects in Massachusetts Overweight and obesity in Massachusetts: epidemic,…[Issue Brief (Mass Health Policy Forum). 2007] – PubMed Result

Economic costs of diabetes Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2002. [Diabetes Care. 2003] – PubMed Result

Schools and Children

September 27th, 2009

As concern about childhood obesity has increased, the school environment has received increased attention.

Retooling school food offerings can help. The Somerville MA experiment Retooling food service for early elementary school…[Prev Chronic Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

A very positive study on the value of nutrition education in the schools Effectiveness of school programs in preventing chi…[Am J Public Health. 2005] – PubMed Result

Effect of the school food environment Association between school food environment and pr…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2009] – PubMed Result

School food environments and practices affect diet…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2009] – PubMed Result

Schools are making progress in addressing obesity. Schools and obesity prevention: creating school en…[Milbank Q. 2009] – PubMed Result

International Journal of Obesity – Abstract of article: Childhood overweight and elementary school outcomes

Overweight affect school performance in girls but not boys. See: http://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/2008/RAND_RP1315.pdf

Impact of removing low nutrition foods in schools. The Impact of Removing Snacks of Low Nutritional V…[Health Educ Behav. 2009] – PubMed Result

Food use in middle and high school fundraising: do…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2009] – PubMed Result

School Environment gets worse with higher grades. School food environments and policies in US public…[Pediatrics. 2008] – PubMed Result

BMI measurement in schools Body mass index measurement in schools. [J Sch Health. 2007] – PubMed Result

Journal of Public Health Policy – Disparities in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Among US Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Correlates, and Intervention Implications

Journal of Public Health Policy – Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 to Reduce Childhood Obesity: Its Implementation and Impact on Child and Adolescent Body Mass Index

Journal of Public Health Policy – Early Impact of the Federally Mandated Local Wellness Policy on Physical Activity in Rural, Low-Income Elementary Schools in Colorado

Journal of Public Health Policy – Preventing Childhood Obesity through State Policy: Qualitative Assessment of Enablers and Barriers

Journal of Public Health Policy – Correlates of Walking to School and Implications for Public Policies: Survey Results from Parents of Elementary School Children in Austin, Texas

Journal of Public Health Policy – Sociodemographic, Family, and Environmental Factors Associated with Active Commuting to School among US Adolescents

Journal of Public Health Policy – Implementation of Texas Senate Bill 19 to Increase Physical Activity in Elementary Schools