Posts Tagged ‘reimbursement’

Challenging Insurance Denials of Care

August 14th, 2012

My old friend Walt Lindstrom has a new site for those needing to challenge denials of insurance coverage for obesity treatment. Check it out at http://wlsappeals.com/

 

A Diet for the New Administration

September 27th, 2009

December 30, 2008

By Morgan Downey

At this time of year, millions of Americans are hoping the new Administration will solve our seemingly intractable problems at home and abroad. Millions are also hoping to lose weight in the New Year. The two are not unrelated.

Over the past three decades, obesity has increased among all segments of the population, in the United States and abroad. Obesity is now recognized as the fuel behind many major health problems from cancer to diabetes to heart disease, and a significant cause of increasing health care utilization and health care costs.

While this recognition has increased among both Republicans and Democrats (for the first time, both parties recognized obesity in their 2008 party platforms), changing public policy has not caught up with the problem. Under President George W. Bush, Medicare did undo its policy that obesity was not a disease and did expand coverage of surgery for the treatment of obesity. There have been modest increases in the research and prevention budgets at the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But by and large, the efforts of the last eight years have been largely educational: tell people they should lose weight, eat more nutritiously, and exercise more.

Duh! We get it. And it doesn’t work. Frankly, other than bariatric surgery, nothing works very well to lose significant amounts for a long period of time. There simply is not one ‘fix’ that will reverse this disturbing trend.

So here is some advice to the incoming Administration. It should be noted that many appointees named so far have a solid exposure to obesity from a public policy perspective, including former Senator Tom Daschle, nominee for Secretary of Health and Human Services, Peter Orszag, named to head the Office of Management and Budget, Governor Bill Richardson, nominated for Secretary of Commerce, and Melody Barnes, incoming chief of domestic policy at the White House.

Universal health insurance is often put forward as the panacea for all ills. However, Democrats may have to learn that expanding health insurance coverage alone does not translate to a healthier population, especially if obesity continues to increase among children and adolescents. Truth be told, we do not have adequate medical interventions to affect the rates of obesity and its effects. So, if we do not know how to truly prevent obesity or create a long term treatment, what should a new Administration do? Basically, it should focus on how to create the conditions where it is more likely than not that we will find effective strategies for prevention and treatment in the future.

  1. Being a role model is not enough. It’s been noted that George Bush and Barack Obama share a passion for physical activity. Unfortunately, the habits of the chief executive do not translate to population changes. And then there is the smoking thing. Being a role model is not an excuse for inadequate policies.
  2. Make someone responsible for obesity policy development. Right now there is no one tasked at the upper levels of the U.S. Government with dealing with obesity. True, periodically the heads of different agencies give a speech, start a new website or create a new task force but little happens because so many do so little with scant coordination.
  3. Prepare to spend some money. For one of the most significant health problems in the country, the federal government spends vastly less than on obesity than other conditions. Research, prevention and treatment costs for diabetes and heart disease, to name but two, swamp comparable figures for obesity. The federal government is spending more on getting TV converters boxes in US homes than the entire NIH research budget on obesity.
  4. Do not just focus on childhood obesity. While childhood obesity is critical, remember that the population between 7 and 16 spans only 9 years out of a lifetime. Look at obesity over the lifetime and look for relevant interventions. Support childhood prevention programs but require that they have a competent evaluation method so we will know what is working and what is not.
  5. Do focus on research. Perhaps 90% of what we know about obesity has been learned since the discovery of leptin in 1994. Too many people believe that we know everything we need to know about obesity and do not need any more research. That’s not true. A great deal is known but there are many more questions than answers. Scientific credibility on issues around body weight is sorely needed. Every hour on television another weight loss program or product is hyped as being based on doctor’s advice or scientific study. What can help on both fronts is for the Administration to create a National Institute of Obesity Research at the National Institutes of Health. A new entity like this can reenergize researchers on obesity, can more closely coordinate the many disparate programs across NIH, provide leadership to other federal agencies, states and local governments and provide much needed focus on the social and economic impacts of obesity. Furthermore, a director who is articulate can help lead policymakers and the public away from harmful and dangerous products and keep a focus on developing effective interventions. The NIH bureaucracy will oppose “disease specific” research but their interests should not trump the public health needs and the best use of taxpayer dollars.
  6. As part of your health care reform package, remove the bias against drugs for weight loss in the Medicaid statute and change the exclusion of these drugs under Medicare Part D. Then have the Food and Drug Administration revisit its risk/benefit views of drugs to treat obesity. There are few fans of pharmaceutical companies in a Democratic Congress and Administration and there are even fewer who favor drugs to treat obesity. Nonetheless, there is a huge treatment gap. We have more and more effective surgical options, one over-the-counter FDA approved pill, a couple of tried medicines, commercial plans and self-help. What we do not have are the drug treatment options we have for high cholesterol, hypertension or diabetes. Recently, major pharmaceutical companies such as Merck, Pfizer, Solvay and Sanofi-Aventis have dropped or cut back on their programs to develop drugs for obesity. There are two reasons. First, insurance companies will not reimburse for most obesity treatments, including counseling, drugs and surgery. For the pharmaceutical industry, it just did not make economic sense to invest in drugs which were not going to be reimbursed. This is where leadership by Medicaid and Medicare is critical. If these programs support obesity products, private insurance may follow. This is in the government’s long term interest because insurers can avoid treating or preventing obesity knowing that the big effects, like diabetes and heart disease will not be seen until later in life, when Medicare will become the payor. Second, many involved in obesity drug development feel, rightly or wrongly, that the Food and Drug Administration is so risk-averse that they simply cannot afford the long and expensive trials necessary to meet the rising bar of safety. A National Institute of Obesity Research can help shape clinical trials needed by the FDA and speed the process along.
  7. Look to multiply your opportunities. For example, you can use the public works part of the economic stimulus package to construct new gyms in schools, sidewalks, playgrounds, green spaces and biking/walking trails to encourage more physical activity.
  8. Let the states experiment with taxes and proposals like displaying caloric content in restaurants. Vending machines, non-diet soft drinks, high-fat foods have all come under fire in recent years for contributing to the obesity epidemic. The problem is that these products still only contribute a fraction to an individual’s total caloric intake. But no one is sure that they won’t be replaced by other calories. Likewise, there will be voices to restrict food advertising to children through the federal government’s regulatory powers. Use your National Institute of Obesity Research to design evaluation studies so that there is an objective review to see if these policies will work.
  9. Take some leadership internationally. The United States has a long history of involvement in global health issues, such as HIV/AIDs. However, very little is done on the federal level to learn from other countries’ experiences and to help shape global patterns of eating and physical activity.
  10. Avoid the single fix ideas. The obesity field is full of good advice and scant evidence. Focusing on a single fix, such a TV advertising, agricultural subsidies or sweetened beverage may consume a great amount of political resources without producing the outcome you seek.

The obesity epidemic is more likely than not to continue to grow over the next four to eight years. However, the new Administration can position the United States for meaningful change if it takes its time and devotes attention to organizing the effort. With any luck, we can make future New Year’s resolutions more likely to be successful.

Latest News

September 27th, 2009

October 21, 2009

FDA plans revision to nutrition label. FDA seeks to improve nutrition labeling on food products – washingtonpost.com

October 20, 2009

Women with obesity at risk for in vitro fertilization failure The Press Association: Obesity cuts IVF success – study

October 19,2009

Can anyone get insurance? Now an underweight girl is excluded. Underweight Girl Denied Insurance Coverage – Denver News Story – KMGH Denver

October 18, 2009

Washington Post columnist Robin Givhan address the Fashion industry and thinness in the culture.Robin Givhan on Fashion: Size of the Model vs. Size of the Customer – washingtonpost.com

Great Idea: solve obesity by making people taller. Idea Lab – Should a War on Shortness Be One of the Goals of Health Care Reform? – NYTimes.com

October 17, 2009

NYT reports on prospects for new drugs for obesity Arena, Orexigen and Vivus Are Chasing an Effective Diet Drug – NYTimes.com

Why can’t CDC find obese swine flu patients? Pneumonia, Susceptibility of Young Among Traits of Swine Flu – washingtonpost.com

October 15, 2009             

Family Physicians Ink deal with Coke Family Doctors Sign Educational Deal With Coca-Cola – NPR Health Blog : NPR

October 14, 2009

First Lady Michelle Obama tackles childhood obesity Michelle Obama’s Weight Loss Tips: Watch TV Standing Up — Politics Daily

North Carolina Plan criticized Obesity penalty isn’t fair or effective – Columnists/Blogs – News & Observer

Ralph Lauren model fired for being too fat Photoshopped Ralph Lauren Model Filippa Hamilton Fired For Being Fat – WPIX

Dr. Bernandine Healy hits punitive steps against the obese The Obesity Epidemic Isn’t Just About Willpower – US News and World Report

October 13, 2009

Candidate’s weight becomes important issue in NJ Governor Race Is Chris Christie Too Fat to Be the Next Governor of New Jersey? – The Gaggle Blog – Newsweek.com

October 12, 2009

Infant denied health care for  pre-existing conditions Why we need health-care reform: ‘Obese’ infant denied insurance!

Colorado Insurer caves The Associated Press: Colo. insurer changes course on fat infants

Baby denied health insurance for obesity as pre-existing condition 17-Pound, 4-Month-Old Baby Denied Health Insurance for Being Too Fat – Children’s Health – FOXNews.com

October 9, 2009

Groups push back on premium increases in Senate Finance Bill If Your Waistline Grows, Should Your Premiums, Too? – Prescriptions Blog – NYTimes.com

October 8, 2009

Corzine attacked as bigot Is Corzine A Bigot? | The New Republic

October 7, 2009

Physicians lead the way in treating obesity Doctors join fight against obesity – USATODAY.com

NJ Governor Corzine accused of attacking opponents weight Corzine Points Spotlight at Christie’s Weight – NYTimes.com

North Carolina to punish overweight state workers North Carolina state health plan to penalize smokers, obese

October 6, 2009

Study showing restaurant calorie labeling doesn’t change habits sure to add fuel to labeling debate Calorie Postings Don’t Change Habits, Study Finds – NYTimes.com

October 2, 2009,

New York Board of Education bans bake sales Bake Sales Are Banned in New York Schools – NYTimes.com

October 1, 2009

After 20 years USDA program for Women Infants and Children adds fruits and vegetables to its voucher program WIC nutrition program expands to cover fruits, vegetables — latimes.com

September 17, 2009 NEJM publishes study on taxing sugar-sweetened beverages NEJM — The Public Health and Economic Benefits of Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

September 11, 2009

Indiana Court allows workers comp coverage of bariatric surgery Indiana Appeals Court Affirms Work Comp Coverage for Obesity Surgery

September 9, 2009

STOP Obesity Alliance presents health care reform proposals Curbing Obesity Epidemic Key to Health Care Reform: Experts – US News and World Report See 16th and 17th U.S. Surgeons General, STOP Obesity Alliance Announce America has Reached Tipping Point on Obesity, Call for Direct Action – STOP Obesity Alliance

September 1, 2009

Institute of Medicine issues recommendations for combating childhood obesity Report maps out solutions to child obesity – USATODAY.com

USDA announces child nutrition grants Release No. 0416.09

More employers trying financial incentives As Federal Healthcare Reform Debate Continues, New Survey Reveals More Companies Turn to Financial Rewards to Tackle Soaring Employee Healthcare Costs

August 31, 2009

New target for therapies identified Study may lead to new obesity therapies – UPI.com

New York City targets sugar-sweetened drinks New Salvo in City’s War on Sugary Drinks – City Room Blog – NYTimes.com

Risk of infant mortality rises with mother’s weight Mom’s obesity tied to higher infant mortality

August 30, 2009

Obesity linked to swine flu deaths Obesity linked to swine flu deaths | World news | The Observer

August 27, 2009

Extreme obesity shortens lives by 12 years Extreme obesity can shorten people’s lives by 12 years – USATODAY.com

New drug claims ability to fight obesity and diabetes New fat-fighting drug has anti-diabetes action too | Health | Reuters

Obesity deniers come out http://www.newsweek.com/id/213807

August 24, 2009

American Heart Association raises alarm about sugar Heart Association recommends limits on added sugars – White Coat Notes – Boston.com

Interesting graph plots out contribution of obesity, age and health status on costs. A Concentration of Health Expenses – Prescriptions Blog – NYTimes.com

GE introduces new MRI geared for larger patients GE Healthcare shows off latest MRI – The Business Review (Albany):

Obesity a risk for swine flu deaths Half of swine flu deaths in high-risk people -study | Reuters

August 18, 2009

Sleep apnea on increase Sleep Apnea Rises With Obesity, Boosts Deaths in Middle-Aged – Bloomberg.com; PLoS Medicine: Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

Push back on doctor’s campaign against obesity Anti-Obesity Dr. Jason Newsom Chomps Down on Dunkin’ Donuts « Vitals Spotlight – We Give the Doctor an Exam

August 11, 2009

President Obama calls for health insurance reform to cover obesity treatments, stating, “All I’m saying is let’s take the example of something like diabetes, one of — a disease that’s skyrocketing, partly because of obesity, partly because it’s not treated as effectively as it could be. Right now if we paid a family — if a family care physician works with his or her patient to help them lose weight, modify diet, monitors whether they’re taking their medications in a timely fashion, they might get reimbursed a pittance. But if that same diabetic ends up getting their foot amputated, that’s $30,000, $40,000, $50,000 — immediately the surgeon is reimbursed. Well, why not make sure that we’re also reimbursing the care that prevents the amputation, right? That will save us money. Text – Obama’s Health Care Town Hall in Portsmouth – NYTimes.com

August 10, 2009

Nominee for Surgeon General attacked over body weight Does it matter what the doctor weighs? — latimes.com

Arena preparing to submit new obesity drug to FDA San Diego Business Journal Online – business news for San Diego, California

August 7, 2009

Recession could worsen obesity prevalence Recession could have negative impact on obesity levels | News | Nursing Times

July 17, 2009

Minorities, blacks hardest hit by obesity reports CDC Atlanta health, diet and fitness news | ajc.com

July 16, 2009

AHA: severe obesity increases risks in surgery Severe obesity increases risks of health problems during surgery

AHA: Clarity on the overweight mortality confusion Mortality, Health Outcomes, and Body Mass Index in the Overweight Range: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association — Lewis et al. 119 (25): 3263 — Circulation

July 14, 2009

Excess weight speeds up osteoarthritis Excess Weight Speeds Up Osteoarthritis: MedlinePlus

July 14, 2009

RWJ releases report on taxes for sugar sweetened beverages Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes and Public Health – RWJF

July 14, 2009 WHO addresses swine flu vaccine for persons with obesity. Swine Flu Vaccine Recommendations from World Health Organization – Health Blog – WSJ

July 10, 2009 CDC finds high prevalence of obesity in swine flu patients. Intensive-Care Patients With Severe Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection — Michigan, June 2009

July 2009 Study finds insulin resistance in overeating lean humans for the first time. Short-term overeating induces insulin resistance i…[Mol Med. 2009 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

July 10,2009

The economy, stress and overeating Job Stress, Economy Weighing on Americans: MedlinePlus

June 24, 2009

Obesity: Africa’s Next Big Killer Africa’s newest silent killer: obesity | FP Passport

July 2, 2009

Connecticut Governor Vetoes Labeling Bill

Rell rejects nutritional labeling for chain restaurants – The Connecticut Post Online

July 1, 2009

Obama Address Obesity in Town HallObama Addresses Health-Care Reform at Virtual Town Hall Meeting – washingtonpost.com

July 1, 2009

Trust for America’s Health releases “F as in Fat 2009” http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090701tfahfasinfat.pdf

June 30, 2009

Institute of Medicine Issues Report on Comparative Effectiveness Research

Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research – Institute of Medicine

Read Morgan Downey’s Testimony

http://www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/64/740/Speaker%20Testimonies%203-4PM%20b

lock.pdf

June 30, 2009

Oregon enacts restaurant labeling bill AP Wire – Oregon | kgw.com | News for Portland Oregon and SW Washington

June 29, 2009

More Data on surgery for diabetes Weight-Loss Surgery May Be Beneficial for Diabetes – NYTimes.com

June 29, 2009

Kentucky phasing out sugar sweetened beverages Congress May Look to Ky. Schools’ Healthy Example in Creating Nutritional Policy – washingtonpost.com

June 25, 2009

IOM release workshop on Food Desserts The Public Health Effects of Food Deserts. Workshop Summary – Institute of Medicine

May 28, 2009

IOM Releases report on Weight Gain in Pregnancy Report Brief. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines – Institute of Medicine

May 9, 2009

Do obesity related diseases predispose to swine flu severity? Other Illness May Precede Worst Cases of Swine Flu – NYTimes.com

Obesity A-Z

September 26th, 2009

There are numerous issues involved in understanding, preventing and treating obesity. Specific diseases are treated in the Health Effects section. Below are a number of other issues. The citations are not meant to be exhaustive but merely to help the reader begin the search for various sources of information. MD

Adherence

Adherence can also be called willpower or compliance. It refers to individual behavior continuing a program of recommended advice, from following a diet to taking medications. Adherence or compliance is a major issue in health care.

http://obssr.od.nih.gov/pdf/Workshop_final_report.pdf

In spite of many efforts to improve Americans life style, the percentage of Americans following all five recommendations has dropped to an all time low – just 8% Adherence to healthy lifestyle habits in US adults…[Am J Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

For more information, see NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) – Adherence

Adiponectin

Higher adiponectin levels associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: a …[JAMA. 2009] – PubMed Result

Adipose Tissue

Obesity is about excess adipose tissue. However, adipose tissue is essential for survival and reproduction of the species. In excess amounts, it can, of course cause poor health and early mortality. Researchers have made great strides in understanding this tissue.

The perfect storm: obesity, adipocyte dysfunction,…[Clin Chem. 2008] – PubMed Result

Impact of increased adipose tissue mass on inflamm…[Curr Diab Rep. 2009] – PubMed Result

The role of adipose tissue dysfunction in the path…[Physiol Behav. 2008] – PubMed Result

Fat storage and the biology of energy expenditure. [Transl Res. 2009] – PubMed Result

Adiposity Rebound

Adiposity or fatness increases in the first of year of life and then decreases. About age 6, fatness increases again. This is called adiposity rebound and it is considered to be a critical time when the conditions for adult obesity can become established.

Early adiposity rebound: review of papers linking …[Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005] – PubMed Result

Adolescence

Food companies targeting adolescence in the digital age Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting…[J Adolesc Health. 2009] – PubMed Result

Maternal gestational weight gain and offspring wei…[Obstet Gynecol. 2008] – PubMed Result

Adolescent pregnancy and subsequent obesity in Afr…[J Adolesc Health. 1994] – PubMed Result

Changes in physiology with increasing fat mass. [Semin Pediatr Surg. 2009] – PubMed Result

Drugs shown to have efficacy, safety for adolescents Efficacy of weight loss drugs on obesity and cardi…[Obes Rev. 2009] – PubMed Result

No difference between obese and non-obese adolescent food consumption Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense foo…[Obes Res. 1999] – PubMed Result

Problem eating behaviors Problem eating behaviors related to social factors…[Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007] – PubMed Result

Changes in adolescent beverage consumption Five-year longitudinal and secular shifts in adole…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2009] – PubMed Result

And in physical activity Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activi…[Pediatrics. 2006] – PubMed Result

International Journal of Obesity – Clinical research in adolescents: challenges and opportunities using obesity as a model

Comorbidities of overweight/obesity experienced in…[Arch Dis Child. 2009] – PubMed Result

Longitudinal and secular trends in weight-related …[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of…[Pediatrics. 2005] – PubMed Result

Depression in adolescents A prospective study of the role of depression in t…[Pediatrics. 2002] – PubMed Result

Agricultural subsidies

No effect on obesity, from USDA http://www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/extension/update/articles/v11n2_1.pdf

EconPapers: Farm subsidies and obesity in the United States: National evidence and international comparisons

Are rising obesity rates linked to U.S. farm aid? | McClatchy

Farm Subsidies Over Time

ScienceDirect – Food Policy : Farm subsidies and obesity in the United States: National evidence and international comparisons

Alcohol Calorie Calculator

http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/CollegeStudents/calculator/alcoholcalc.aspx

Basal Metabolic Rate

The basal metabolic rate (closely related to the resting metabolic rate) is the amount of calories our bodies need to just maintain their normal functions, like metabolism, breathing, blood flow, etc. It is the baseline for determining one’s caloric input.

Basal Metabolism Rate Calculator (note: BMR calculators can have a high degree of variation : BMR Calculator

Breakfast

Is consumption of breakfast associated with body m…[J Am Diet Assoc. 2005] – PubMed Result

Breast-feeding

Mothers more likely to cease breastfeeding The association of maternal overweight and obesity…[J Pediatr. 2006] – PubMed Result

Overweight obese mothers less likely to breastfeed. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breast…[BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007] – PubMed Result

Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular …[Am J Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Australian study shows mothers with obesity more likely to cease breastfeeding Maternal obesity and initiation and duration of br…[Matern Child Nutr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and it…[BMC Pediatr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Calculators

Calories Burned UMMS: Calories Burned Calculator

Canada

See Canadian Obesity Network – Obesity Canada

Quality of life of patients with obesity The health status of obese individuals in Canada. [Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001] – PubMed Result

Prevalence of obesity in Canada. [Obes Rev. 2005] – PubMed Result

BMI and Mortality: Results From a National Longitu…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Child Abuse

Childhood maltreatment in extremely obese male and…[Obes Res. 2005] – PubMed Result

Relation of childhood sexual abuse and other forms…[Obes Surg. 2006] – PubMed Result

Childhood sexual abuse and obesity. [Obes Rev. 2004] – PubMed Result

Child abuse is associated with both obesity and depression in middle age women

Associations of child sexual and physical abuse wi…[Child Abuse Negl. 2008] – PubMed Result

Obesity risk for female victims of childhood sexua…[Pediatrics. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life:…[Pediatrics. 2008] – PubMed Result

Common Sense

‘Common sense’ when used to describe some obesity intervention usually is short for “there’s no data to support this.” Usually within 18 to 24 months there is study showing the ‘common sense’ recommendation didn’t work.

Cuba

Cuba presents an interesting case study. With the fall of the Soviet Union, Cuba, faced with reduction of subsidies from their former patron, went into an economic crisis, known as the “Special Period.” As a result, calories consumed per day dropped, physical activity increased and there was a modest 1.5 unit shift in BMI with reductions in obesity prevalence and increases in overweight and normal weight. Deaths attributed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke and all causes declined as well, suggesting population wide measures might reduce disease and increase mortality. Obesity reduction and its possible consequences: w…[CMAJ. 2008] – PubMed Result and Impact of energy intake, physical activity, and po…[Am J Epidemiol. 2007] – PubMed Result (While the Cuban experience is an extremely interesting situation, the question must be asked whether a democratic government not in extreme economic peril could impose such a draconian situation on its people. MD)

Disparities

While rates of obesity are increasing in all demographic categories, large difference between groups are very evident, leading researchers to ask why different groups in the same environment should have such divergent outcomes.

Obesity, Gynecological Factors, and Abnormal Mammo…[J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009] – PubMed Result

State of disparities in cardiovascular health in t…[Circulation. 2005] – PubMed Result

Disparities in preventive care by body mass index …[Women Health. 2008] – PubMed Result

The obesity epidemic in the United States–gender,…[Epidemiol Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Racial divergence in adiposity during adolescence:…[Pediatrics. 2001] – PubMed Result

Gender-ethnic disparity in BMI and waist circumfer…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Women Obesity in black women. [Epidemiol Rev. 1987] – PubMed Result

Eating Behavior

The psychology of food craving. [Proc Nutr Soc. 2007] – PubMed Result

RAND | RAND Health | Eating as an Automatic Behavior

Food cravings and energy regulation: the character…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2007] – PubMed Result

Eating Disorders

[Night eating syndrome and nocturnal eating–what …[Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Teasing history, onset of obesity, current eating …[Obes Res. 2000] – PubMed Result

Childhood psychological, physical, and sexual malt…[Obes Res. 2001] – PubMed Result

Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the sam…[Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009 Apr-Jun] – PubMed Result

http://www.womenshealth.gov/BodyImage/bodyworks/CompanionPiece.pdf

Does talking about weight lead to eating disorders? A Parent’s Innocent Word Can Trigger a Dangerous Eating Disorder – washingtonpost.com

Role of parents: Risk Factors for Full- and Partial-Syndrome Early …[J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009] – PubMed Result

Elderly

Obesity: What is an elderly population growing int…[Maturitas. 2009] – PubMed Result

Elderly risk for obese men Overweight and obesity and the burden of disease a…[Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004] – PubMed Result

Applicability of Federal Guidelines An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines…[Arch Intern Med. 2001] – PubMed Result

Fat or Fit Debate

Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness…[JAMA. 1999] – PubMed Result

Fitness and abdominal obesity are independently as…[J Intern Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Food

The obesity-by-choice debate. Effect of nutrient composition Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food avail…[Physiol Behav. 2007] – PubMed Result

Biology trumps knowledge in model of food choices Is Dietary Knowledge Enough? Hunger, Stress, and Other Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

USDA Food Plans: Cost of Food Cost of Food at Home

Eating and Health Module (ATUS)

Food and Beverage Marketing

See Institute of Medicine Report, Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth – Institute of Medicine

CDC Congressional Testimony CDC Washington Testimony September 23, 2008

Use of branded web sites Food and beverage brands that market to children a…[J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Sep-Oct] – PubMed Result

Use of cartoon and other characters Marketing foods to children and adolescents: licen…[Public Health Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

The ‘Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercia…[Public Health Nutr. 2008] – PubMed Result

Glycemic Index

Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets fo…[Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Hunger

Hunger as powerful, primordial emotion The role of primordial emotions in the evolutionar…[Conscious Cogn. 2009] – PubMed Result

Ireland

Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island…[BMC Public Health. 2007] – PubMed Result

Intensive Care

Effect of obesity on intensive care morbidity and …[Crit Care Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Menu Labeling

Menu Labeling in Food Chains http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddMenuLabelingReport2008.pdf

Microorganisms

Fat Factors – New York Times

Obesity – Extending the Hygiene Hypothesis. [Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2009] – PubMed Result

Interplay between obesity and associated metabolic…[Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with …[Mayo Clin Proc. 2008] – PubMed Result

Military

Military family physician attitudes toward treatin…[Mil Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Attitudes and practices of military family physici…[Mil Med. 2001] – PubMed Result

Mortality

For many years, the issue of whether obesity causes an increase in premature deaths has been hotly debated. The public frequently receives conflicting information on the topic. Is it ok to be overweight? Are only persons with severe obesity at risk? In the final analysis, I think the American Heart Association’s Scientific Consensus gets it right…at some point (the curve of body weight) the heavier have higher rates of premature deaths. At what exact point on the BMI scale that takes place is open to discussion, but the curve always goes up. MD)

See Mortality, health outcomes, and body mass index in…[Circulation. 2009] – PubMed Result

An August 2009 study shows obesity is responsible for about 95 million Years-of-Life-Lost. White femals account for more than 2/3 of that amount. Without changes in the obesity prevalence, the life expectancy of US adults may decrease. Individual and Aggregate Years-of-life-lost Associ…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

New: Study estimates overweight/obesity and physical inactivity each responsible for 1 in 10 deaths in the US.The preventable causes of death in the United Stat…[PLoS Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Will the rise in obesity affect future mortality rates? Trends in Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes

The preventable causes of death in the United Stat…[PLoS Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Optimal Body Weight for the Prevention of Coronary…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009] – PubMed Result

Will the rise in obesity affect future mortality rates? Trends in Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes

Does intentional weight loss increase longevity? Long-term weight loss effects on all cause mortali…[Obes Rev. 2007] – PubMed Result

Obesity and Mortality after Stroke The Impact of Body Mass Index on Mortality After S…[Stroke. 2009] – PubMed Result

Preventable causes of death The preventable causes of death in the United Stat…[PLoS Med. 2009] – PubMed Result

Effect of physical inactivity Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morb…[Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999] – PubMed Result

Obesity, Mortality and Nursing Home Residents Obesity and mortality in elderly nursing home resi…[J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005] – PubMed Result

Morbid obesity is an independent determinant of de…[Crit Care Med. 2006] – PubMed Result

The body mass index paradox and an obesity, inflam…[Semin Dial. 2004 May-Jun] – PubMed Result

Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in …[N Engl J Med. 2003] – PubMed Result

Nursing Homes

Elderly in nursing homes Obesity in nursing homes: an escalating problem. [J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005] – PubMed Result

Oral Bacteria

Is obesity caused by an oral bacteria? Is obesity an oral bacterial disease? [J Dent Res. 2009] – PubMed Result

Pets

The young and old, rich and poor, black and white are becoming more obese. Is it any wonder that our pets would also see increases in their weight? As a matter of fact, veterinarians are very concerned about obesity in pets and have even formed a society to address the problem. See Pet Obesity Facts and Risks

Overweight in dogs, but not in cats, is related to…[Public Health Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

Portion Size/Control

The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the…[Am J Public Health. 2002] – PubMed Result

The influence of food portion size and energy dens…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2005] – PubMed Result

Energy density and portion size: their independent…[Physiol Behav. 2004] – PubMed Result

Public Health

Prevalence of selected risk behaviors and chronic …[MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008] – PubMed Result

Reimbursement

Should medicare reimburse providers for weight los…[Am Psychol. 2007] – PubMed Result

http://www.obesityaction.org/advocacytools/insurance/OAC%20Insurance%20Piece.pdf

Social Networks

In the past couple of years, researchers have been exploring new theories for the rapid spread of obesity. One of these areas is social networks of individuals, i.e. their close friends and relatives.

One of the earlier studies can be found here The spread of obesity in a large social network ov…[N Engl J Med. 2007] – PubMed Result but also see Adolescent obesity and social networks. [Prev Chronic Dis. 2009] – PubMed Result

Weight loss may positively impact spouses Weight loss treatment influences untreated spouses…[Int J Obes (Lond). 2008] – PubMed Result

Stress

Shaping the stress response: interplay of palatabl…[Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009] – PubMed Result

Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication …[Brain Behav Immun. 2005] – PubMed Result

Role of stress and weight gain Stress and obesity: the role of the hypothalamic-p…[Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009] – PubMed Result

Sugar sweetened Beverages

Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and obesity: a systema…[Nutr Res Rev. 2008] – PubMed Result

Soft drinks and weight gain: how strong is the lin…[Medscape J Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gai…[Am J Clin Nutr. 2006] – PubMed Result

Soft drinks and weight gain: how strong is the lin…[Medscape J Med. 2008] – PubMed Result

Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results f…[PLoS One. 2008] – PubMed Result

Soft drinks and ‘desire to drink’ in preschoolers. [Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008] – PubMed Result

Taxing Soft Drinkshttp://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddReportSoftDrinkTaxFeb2009.pdf

Taste

What is role of taste and obesity Taste and weight: is there a link? [Am J Clin Nutr. 2009] – PubMed Result

Technology

Smartphone apps for weight loss Smartphone Training Apps Help You Sweat the Details – NYTimes.com

Computerized BMI prompt increases counseling Effect of a computerized body mass index prompt on…[Fam Med. 2009 Jul-Aug] – PubMed Result

Television Viewing

According to this study, food advertising on TV is a major contributor to childhood obesity By how much would limiting TV food advertising red…[Eur J Public Health. 2009] – PubMed Result

http://www.nber.org/digest/aug06/aug06.pdf

Association between television viewing and poor di…[Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008] – PubMed Result

The association of television and video viewing wi…[Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006] – PubMed Result

Television viewing and television in bedroom assoc…[Pediatrics. 2002] – PubMed Result

Association of maternal obesity and depressive sym…[Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003] – PubMed Result

Time

USDA: Why working parents outsource children’s meals 2008 Farm Act Makes It Easier for Food Assistance Households To Save – Amber Waves March 2009

Eating and Health, USDA time use study data Eating and Health Module (ATUS) – ERS/USDA Data

Who has time to cook? Who Has Time To Cook? How Family Resources Influence Food Preparation

Americans of different weights spend same amount of time eating How Much Time Do Americans Spend Eating? – June 2008

United Kingdom

Tackling Obesities: Future Choices Project

Vending Machines

Vending machine offerings unhealthy The food and beverage vending environment in healt…[Pediatrics. 2009] – PubMed Result

Virus

Adenovirus Picture: adenovirus Ad-36 (implicated in obesity epidemic) by Russell Kightley MediaOb